Crop and Pest Management Guidelines

A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication
34123

3.2 Fungicide Information

34253

ABOUND

ABOUND (azoxystrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin [QoI]

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, variable but limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot; modest suppression of Phomopsis and Botrytis

Comments: Azoxystrobin is the active ingredient in Abound and Azaka. It also is formulated with DMI fungicides, to make two different combination products, Quadris Top (in combination with difenoconazole) and Topguard EQ (in combination with flutriafol), and with mancozeb to make *NYDexter Max. Abound was the first registered compound in the strobilurin (or "QoI") group of fungicides. It once provided excellent control of both powdery and downy mildew, very good control of black rot, and fair control of Phomopsis and Botrytis. It also provides control of the late season "summer rots" (bitter rot, ripe rot), although it is not specifically labeled for this purpose. However, the powdery mildew fungus has developed resistance to the strobilurin fungicides in multiple vineyards, resulting in poor control of the disease where this has occurred. Resistance to the strobilurins by the downy mildew fungus also appears to have developed in a number of NY vineyards and has been documented as the cause of DM control failures in numerous vineyards elsewhere. Abound is absorbed into the waxy cuticle of the leaves and fruit (hence, it is relatively resistant to wash-off) but works primarily in a protective mode; that is, it is most effective when present before an infection period occurs. However, it does have limited post-infection activity against black rot and modest post-infection activity against non-resistant strains of the powdery mildew fungus. Also, it can limit disease spread by suppressing the production of new spores when applied post-infection, even if applied too late to prevent other symptoms from developing. Abound is labeled for use at 10-14 day intervals at a rate of 10.0 to 15.5 fl oz/A of the 2SC formulation. ABOUND IS LABELED FOR APPLICATION WITH GROUND EQUIPMENT ONLY, AND CANNOT BE APPLIED WITH AIRBLAST EQUIPMENT IN CERTAIN TOWNSHIPS AND BOROUGHS OF ERIE COUNTY, PA. It has a 4-hour reentry interval and may be applied to within 14 days of harvest.

CAUTION: Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, Topguard EQ, and *NYDexter Max are extremely phytotoxic to many apple cultivars, especially McIntosh and its relatives (e.g., Cortland, Empire, Ben Davis). Severe injury and defoliation can occur if a spray of these materials drifts onto such trees, or if the trees are sprayed with equipment that was used previously to apply these fungicides. To avoid such injury, (a) follow all precautions to avoid spray drift in the vicinity of apple orchards; and (b) do not make applications to apple trees with sprayers that have been used to apply products containing azoxystrobin.

resistance warning: Powdery and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Azaka, Flint/Flint Extra (and the trifloxystrobin component of *NY†Luna Sensation), Sovran, the pyraclostrobin component of Pristine, *NY†Reason and the azoxystrobin component of Quadris Top, Topguard EQ, and *NYDexter Max) has occurred in multiple vineyards throughout NY and various mid-Atlantic regions, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. Thus, it is now risky to rely on strobilurin fungicides for control of either powdery or downy mildew. When such resistance occurs, none of the strobilurin fungicides will provide commercial control of the affected disease, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. Pristine, a product that combines a strobilurin fungicide (pyraclostrobin) with an unrelated material (boscalid), has provided good control of strobilurin-resistant POWDERY mildew populations. The same can likely be said for *NY†Luna Sensation, which combines a strobilurin (trifloxystrobin) with fluopyram. However, in such vineyards this control comes primarily from the boscalid (or fluopyram) component, which also is at risk for resistance development; hence Pristine and *NY†Luna Sensation also should be used sparingly and with caution where problems with strobilurins have been encountered. Furthermore, note that the boscalid component of Pristine (and the fluopyram component of *NY†Luna Sensation) does NOT provide control of DOWNY mildew, so it will not help control the development of this disease should DM resistance to the strobilurins be present. Similarly, the difenoconazole and flutriafol components of the combination products Quadris Top and Topguard EQ, respectively, will not control downy mildew if the strobilurin component fails. However, the mancozeb component in *NYDexter Max will still provide control of downy mildew if the azoxystrobin component fails to do so. Where still effective, it is critical to use the strobilurins in a manner that minimizes the probability or speed of future resistance development. Make no more than two applications per year of all Group 11 products (combined), and do not make two consecutive applications of a Group 11 product. Never use the strobilurins or related Group 11 products as the only fungicide group for control of powdery or downy mildew throughout the season. Always rotate them with an unrelated fungicide, even on varieties receiving a minimal number of fungicide sprays per season. Be sure to use appropriate labeled rates and spray intervals and assure thorough spray coverage. On varieties highly susceptible to powdery mildew and not sulfur sensitive, tank-mixing sulfur with the strobilurin fungicides will give an extra measure of protection at a relatively low cost, as will the inclusion of the non-strobilurin components of the combination products Pristine, Quadris Top, and Topguard EQ. There is a combination product available (see *NYDexter Max) for control of strobilurin-resistant downy mildew individuals.

34254

APROVIA 0.83EC

*NYAPROVIA 0.83EC (benzovindiflupyr) - read the label

Signal word: DANGER

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: SDHI

Resistance Group Number: 7

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: *NYAprovia is a new member of the SDHI (Group 7) fungicides, with excellent activity against powdery mildew. However, unlike the related Group 7 fungicide components of Pristine and *NY†Luna Experience, it does not provide good control of Botrytis. *NYAprovia also is labeled for control of anthracnose, Phomopsis, and black rot. However, it has provided only modest control of black rot in field trials, and there is little local experience or published results of trials with the other two diseases in North America. Therefore, powdery mildew is the only disease against which this fungicide should be used with confidence. Do not exceed 10.5 fl oz product/A per application and do not exceed 3 applications per year. *NYAprovia has a 12 hr REI and a 21 day PHI.

34255

APROVIA Top 1.62EC

*NYAPROVIA Top 1.62EC (7.3% benzovindiflupyr + 10.95% difenoconazole) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: SDHI + DMI

Resistance Group Numbers: 7, 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: for powdery mildew and black rot = protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew, black rot

Comments: *NYAprovia Top is a mixture of two active ingredients: i) benzovindiflupyr, the active ingredient in *NYAprovia 0.83SC, with excellent activity against powdery mildew and ii) difenoconazole, a DMI fungicide with very good to excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose. *NYAprovia Top also is labeled for control of Phomopsis. However, local experience and published results of trials with Phomopsis is lacking in North America. Label rate for *NYAprovia Top is 8.5 to 13.5 fl oz/A; 13.5 fl oz of *NYAprovia Top provides about the same amount of benzovindiflupyr as 10.5 fl oz of *NYAprovia; it also provides about the same amount of difenoconazole as 18 fl oz of Inspire Super, but falls a little short of that found in 7 fl oz of Revus Top. *NYAprovia Top has a 12 hr REI and a 21 day PHI.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although many of these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management, especially during the critical bloom through early post-bloom period. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes-do not use on this variety; caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars provided under the listing for Revus Top. Such injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

34256

ARMICARB 100 85WP

^ARMICARB 100 85WP (potassium bicarbonate) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 424-9300

Chemical/fungicide family: potassium salt

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited eradicant; NO protection

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: In New York trials, ^Armicarb 100 and other potassium bicarbonate products such as Milstop, and Kaligreen have shown activity very similar to that of Nutrol, a different potassium salt: fair control of powdery mildew but NO CONTROL OF OTHER DISEASES, although many are listed on their labels. It is assumed that the bicarbonates exert this control through the same physical modes of action as demonstrated for Nutrol: post-infection, antisporulant, and limited eradicant activity, but NO protective activity.

34257

AZAKA 2.08 SC

AZAKA 2.08 SC (azoxystrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 303-6950

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin [QoI]

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, variable but limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot; modest suppression of Phomopsis and Botrytis.

Comments: Azaka is an azoxystrobin product that's very similar to Abound with respect to use rates and the spectrum of target diseases affected. In limited testing, the formulation of Azaka that was examined was modestly less active than Abound. Refer to the discussion under Abound for specific characteristics and cautions regarding this and other azoxystrobin products.

34258

BOTECTOR

BOTECTOR (Aureobasidium pullulans strains DSM 14940, 14941) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Chemical/fungicide family: biopesticide

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected use: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: Botector is a preparation of a living yeast-like organism that competes with the Botrytis fungus for colonization sites on the grape flowers and berries. As such, it provides protective activity only (must be present and growing before the Botrytis fungus tries to infect), and this beneficial organism can be killed by some broad-spectrum fungicides if they are applied to manage other diseases (see company website for a current list of incompatible materials). Botector has provided fair to good control in a limited number of NY trials under moderate disease pressure conditions, but it has not been trialed under heavy pressure. It has a 4-hr REI and up to day of harvest PHI.

34259

CAPTAN 50WP, CAPTAN 80WDG, CAPTEC 4L

CAPTAN 50WP, CAPTAN 80WDG, CAPTEC 4L (captan) - read the label

Signal word: DANGER

Medical emergency: (800) 858-7378; (800) 424-9300 (Captan), (866) 303-6952 (Captec); others (consult the label)

Chemical/fungicide family: phthalimides

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected uses: Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, downy mildew, anthracnose, bitter rot, ripe rot

Comments: There are a number of different captan products on the market, and REIs vary among them (often 48 hr for 50WP and 4L formulations, 72 hr for 80WDG formulations, depending on the age of the label). Consult and follow the label of the particular formulation you're using. Do not apply more than 24 lb/A/season of Captan 50WP or more than 15 lb/A/ season of Captan 80WDG. It is illegal to apply Captan "during, with, or following" a spray of JMS Stylet Oil (danger of plant injury). There is also a danger if the oil is applied within 10 days after a Captan spray. Captan may similarly cause plant injury if applied with or near other oils or products that cause its uptake into the leaves and fruit (e.g., some liquid insecticides and surfactants). Lime should not be used with Captan, or fungicide activity may be reduced. The use of Captan is restricted or not permitted by certain processors and export markets. Check with your processor before applying Captan.

34260

COPPER COMPOUNDS

COPPER COMPOUNDS (several formulations) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: read the label

Chemical/fungicide family: A basic element

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected uses: downy mildew; some powdery mildew; modest black rot

Comments: Coppers provide good activity against downy mildew and often give adequate control of powdery mildew on moderately resistant varieties such as Concord; they should not be relied upon for powdery mildew control on V. vinifera and highly susceptible hybrid varieties, although they will provide some suppression. They provide only moderate control of black rot, but are the most effective of the approved "organic" materials against this disease. CAUTION: Lime, typically applied with commercial copper formulations to reduce the chance of plant injury, should not be used with Captan, *Imidan, or Sevin. Do not use copper on any variety unless the tolerance to copper injury is known (see Table 3.1.2 for varietal sensitivity). Copper applied under slow-drying conditions (cool or very humid) may cause injury even to some otherwise tolerant varieties such as Concord. Spray water with a very low pH also increases the risk of copper injury, especially if lime is not added.

34261

dexter max

*NYdexter max (5% azoxystrobin + 70% mancozeb) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: 1-866-673-6671

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin + ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC)

Resistance Group Number: 11 (azoxystrobin)

Resistance risk: low for downy mildew, black rot, and Phomopsis (because of mancozeb), high for powdery mildew and Botrytis (because of azoxystrobin)

Physical mode of action: protectant, variable but limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: Powdery mildew, Downy mildew, Black rot, Phomopsis, suppression of Botrytis. Users may notice incidental control of anthracnose and angular leaf scorch.

Comments: *NYDexter Max contains two active ingredients: (i) azoxystrobin, the fungicide component of Abound and Azaka, which (in the absence of resistance to strobilurins) has provided very good to excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and downy mildew, and fair activity against Phomopsis and (ii) mancozeb, the active ingredient in Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb, and many other products (eg. Fortuna, Roper), that provides good to excellent activity against downy mildew, black rot, and Phomopsis. Therefore, this product can provide good to excellent control of the four major grape fungal diseases that threaten eastern grape production every season (powdery and downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis). However, strobilurin resistance by the powdery mildew fungus is common in many grape growing areas of the east, and where present, will render this product ineffective against that disease. On varieties highly susceptible to powdery mildew and not sulfur sensitive, tank-mixing sulfur with this fungicide will give an extra measure of protection. Label rates for *NYDexter Max are 1.6 to 4.25 lbs/A. The 3.2 and 4.25 lb/A rates of this product contain the same amount of azoxystrobin as 10 and about 13.1 fl oz of Abound flowable (the low and mid-range of Abound rates for grapes, respectively), and the same amount of mancozeb as 3 and 4 lbs of the 75DF formulations of Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb, and other mancozeb products. *NYDexter Max has a 24 hr REI and a 66 day PHI. Please refer to the discussion under Abound for specific characteristics and cautions regarding this and other azoxystrobin products.

34262

DITHANE M-45, *NYDITHANE DF RAINSHIELD, *NYDITHANE F-45 RAINSHIELD, MANZATE PROSTICK 75DF, *NYMANZATE MAX 4F, PENNCOZEB 75DF

DITHANE M-45, *NYDITHANE DF RAINSHIELD, *NYDITHANE F-45 RAINSHIELD, MANZATE PROSTICK 75DF, *NYMANZATE MAX 4F, PENNCOZEB 75DF (mancozeb) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: Dithane: (800) 992-5994, Manzate: (888) 324-7598, Penncozeb: (303) 623-5716

Chemical/fungicide family: ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC)

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected uses: anthracnose, black rot, downy mildew, Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, angular leaf scorch

Comments: Do not enter treated area within 24 hours of application unless proper protective clothing is worn. The maximum allowance for these materials ranges from 18-19.2 lb of active ingredient/A/season. SEE PRODUCT LABELS AS RESTRICTIONS VARY DEPENDING ON THE PRODUCT OR COMBINATION OF PRODUCTS YOU USE. Do not apply within 66 days of harvest. The use of these fungicides may be permitted only prior to bloom by certain processors. Check with your processor before applying mancozeb fungicides.

34263

DOUBLE NICKEL 55, LC

DOUBLE NICKEL 55, LC (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 255-3924

Chemical/fungicide family: biopesticide

Resistance Group Number: 44

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant (+ post-infection vs. powdery mildew)

Selected use: Powdery mildew, Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: Double Nickel 55 is a 25% water-dispersible granule (WDG) formulation, whereas Double Nickel LC is a 99% aqueous suspension concentrate. The active ingredient of both formulations is a proprietary strain of a common soil organism (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747), which produces secondary metabolites (lipopeptides) harmful to the cell walls and membranes of fungi and bacteria. In NY and PA trials, Double Nickel has shown greatest activity when disease pressure is moderate. It can be used in programs with other fungicides and in organic grape production, but should not be tank mixed with antibiotics, peracetic acids, or hydrogen peroxides.. The products have a 4-hr REI and 0-day PHI.

34264

ELEVATE 50WDG

ELEVATE 50WDG (fenhexamid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 303-6952

Chemical/fungicide family: hydroxyanilide

Resistance Group Number: 17

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection

Selected use: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: Elevate is very effective against Botrytis. It also provides modest suppression of powdery mildew, but will not provide adequate control of this disease when used alone. Elevate has a 12-hr restricted entry interval and a 0-day preharvest restriction.

34265

ENDURA 70 WG

ENDURA 70 WG (boscalid) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Chemical/fungicide family: SDHI

Resistance Group Number: 7

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection; antisporulant activity probable but not yet demonstrated

Selected uses: powdery mildew, Botrytis

Comments: Boscalid is one of the two fungicidal components of the product, Pristine (the other component is pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide). As a solo product (not in mixture), boscalid is sold under the trade name Endura. Although it has proved to be useful as a rotational or mixing partner (as a component of Pristine) in programs for powdery mildew and Botrytis control, note that boscalid and other SDHI (Group 7) fungicides such as fluopyram (one of the two components in the new products, *NY†Luna Experience and *NY†Luna Sensation), pydiflumetofen (the active ingredient in ^Miravis Prime) and benzovindiflupyr (the active ingredient in *NYAprovia) are at risk for resistance development, like most modern fungicides. Thus, it is recommended that use of all Group 7 products should be limited to a maximum of two applications per year, and that they should be used only in rotation or in mixtures with unrelated materials. Although Endura has excellent activity against both powdery mildew and Botrytis, note that higher rates are needed for Botrytis control (8 oz/A) than for powdery mildew control (4.5 oz/A). Note also that Pristine used at the rate of 19 oz/A recommended for Botrytis control provides the same amount of boscalid as 6.8 oz of Endura; in field trials this rate of Pristine has given control of Botrytis equivalent to 8 oz/A of Endura. Endura has a 12-hr re-entry interval and a 14-day preharvest interval.

34266

FLINT extra

FLINT extra (trifloxystrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin [QoI activity group]

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, variable but limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: black rot, powdery mildew, Botrytis, bitter rot, ripe rot

Comments: Flint Extra (a liquid formulation) essentially replaces the old Flint (a dry formulation) and is a strobilurin fungicide. It is also found in *NY†Luna Sensation and is chemically related to Abound and other azoxystrobin products, Sovran, *NY†Reason, ^Intuity, and one component of Pristine. For rates of active ingredient applied, one fluid ounce of the new formulation is roughly equivalent to one dry ounce of the old formulation. However, the rates on the new label generally reflect a higher application of active ingredient for disease control, compared with those on the old label. For example, the old label listed a 1.5-2 ounce rate for powdery mildew control, whereas the new label lists a 3-3.5 fluid ounce rate for that disease; about a 102-77% increase over the old rate of active ingredient. The rates of active ingredient for black rot, Phomopsis and Botrytis have been bumped up substantially as well, though to a lesser extent, but the rates for downy mildew (the disease for which this product only provides "suppression") have remained about the same.

Flint once provided outstanding activity against powdery mildew, when resistance to the strobilurins was not present. However, the powdery mildew fungus has developed resistance to the strobilurin fungicides in multiple vineyards, resulting in poor control of this disease in the affected plantings (see below). Like the other strobilurins, trifloxystrobin is very good against black rot and fair against Phomopsis, but this particular member of the group is weak against downy mildew even when resistance is not an issue (note that the label specifies "suppression" of downy mildew). Unlike Abound (and related products) and Sovran, Flint Extra also is labeled for control of Botrytis, although at a new rate of 3.8 fl oz/A (an increase in trifloxystrobin application of about 28% over the 3 oz rate on the old Flint label). Although it provided good to very good control of Botrytis in New York trials run some years ago, Botrytis resistance to the strobilurins is common in several regions where these materials have been used for some time; thus, current reliance upon Flint Extra for control of this disease is risky. Flint Extra has a 12-hr restricted entry interval and a s-day preharvest interval.

CAUTION: Flint Extra is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes - do not use on this variety. Flint/FlintExtra reportedly is not phytotoxic on any other variety.

resistance warning: Powdery and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Azaka, Flint/Flint Extra (and the Flint component of Luna Sensation), Sovran, the pyraclostrobin component of Pristine, *NY†Reason, and the azoxystrobin component of Quadris Top, Topguard EQ, and *NYDexter Max) has occurred in multiple vineyards throughout NY and various mid-Atlantic regions, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. Thus, it is now risky to rely on strobilurin fungicides for control of either powdery or downy mildew. When such resistance occurs, none of the strobilurin fungicides will provide commercial control of the affected disease, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. Pristine, a product that combines a strobilurin fungicide (pyraclostrobin) with an unrelated material (boscalid), has provided good control of strobilurin-resistant POWDERY mildew populations. The same can likely be said for *NY†Luna Sensation, which combines a strobilurin (trifloxystrobin) with fluopyram. However, in such vineyards this control comes primarily from the boscalid (or fluopyram) component, which also is at risk for resistance development; hence Pristine and *NY†Luna Sensation also should be used sparingly and with caution where problems with strobilurins have been encountered. Furthermore, note that the boscalid component of Pristine (and the fluopyram component of *NY†Luna Sensation) does NOT provide control of DOWNY mildew, so it will not help control the development of this disease should DM resistance to the strobilurins be present. Although Botrytis resistance to the strobilurins has not been documented in NY or PA vineyards, it is very common in Virginia and is likely to be present here as well. Where still effective, it is critical to use the strobilurins in a manner that minimizes the probability or speed of future resistance development. Make no more than two applications per year of all Group 11 products (combined), and do not make two consecutive applications of a Group 11 product. Never use the strobilurins as the only fungicide group for control of powdery or downy mildew throughout the season. Always rotate them with an unrelated fungicide, even on varieties receiving a minimal number of fungicide sprays per season. Be sure to use appropriate labeled rates and spray intervals and assure thorough spray coverage. On varieties highly susceptible to powdery mildew and not sulfur sensitive, tank-mixing sulfur with the strobilurin fungicides will give an extra measure of protection, as will the use of the combination products Pristine, Quadris Top, and Topguard EQ. Unfortunately, there are no similarly economical tank-mix alternatives or combination products available for control of strobilurin-resistant downy mildew populations.

NOTE: Though Flint Extra replaces Flint 50WG, grape growers will still be able to legally use up old stock of Flint 50WG. (NY growers will need to check that Flint 50WG is registered prior to using any remaining stock.)

34267

FRACTURE 2.1SC

FRACTURE 2.1SC (BLAD protein) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 331-3148

Chemical/fungicide family: biopesticide

Resistance Group Number: BM01

Resistance risk: unknown

Physical mode of action: protectant; some post-infection versus powdery mildew?

Selected uses: Botrytis, powdery mildew, sour rot

Comments: Fracture is a product whose active ingredient is derived from a naturally occurring plant protein, which acts by breaking down fungal cell walls. The US EPA has placed no limits on Fracture residue levels, meaning there are no residue levels considered unsafe. In NY and PA trials, which began in 2015, it provided good control of Botrytis and sour rot; it also provided good control against powdery mildew in one low-pressure NY trial in 2016 and moderate control against powdery mildew in two PA trials in 2016 and 2017. Fracture has a 4-hr REI and a 1-day PHI. No more than 5 applications can be made during the season, and Fracture may be applied no more than twice before alternating with a product that has a different mode of action.

34268

GAVEL 75DF

*NYGAVEL 75DF (zoxamide + mancozeb) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (888) 478-0798

Chemical/fungicide family: benzamide + EBDC

Resistance Group Number: 22

Resistance risk: moderate (zoxamide) + low (mancozeb)

Mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant (?)

Selected uses: downy mildew

Comments: *NYGavel is a product that combines two active ingredients: (i) zoxamide, a downy mildew-specific fungicide unrelated to any other materials on the market; and (ii) mancozeb. When applied at the labeled rate of 2.0-2.5 lb/A, it provides the same amount of mancozeb as 1.8-2.2 lb of standard 75DF formulations of other mancozeb products such as Dithane, Penncozeb, etc. Thus, for control of diseases other than downy mildew, *NYGavel should be applied with sufficient quantities of another mancozeb product to provide a dosage equivalent to 3-4 lb/A of the 75DF formulations of a solo mancozeb product. *NYGavel has provided fair to good control of downy mildew when applied at 14-day intervals in several NY trials.

34269

INSPIRE SUPER 2.82SC

INSPIRE SUPER 2.82SC (8.4% difenoconazole + 24.1% cyprodinil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup] + analinopyrimidine

Resistance Group Numbers: 3, 9

Resistance risk: moderate (difenoconazole) + high (cyprodinil)

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected uses: anthracnose, black rot, Botrytis, powdery mildew

Comments: Inspire Super contains a mixture of two active ingredients: (i) difenoconazole, a DMI fungicide (also found in Revus Top and Quadris Top) with excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose; and (ii) cyprodinil, the active ingredient in Vangard, which provides Botrytis activity. The label rate is 16-20 fl oz/A; 20 fl oz of this product contains the same amount of difenoconazole as 7 fl oz of Revus Top (label rate) or 14 fl oz of Quadris Top (maximum label rate) and also contains the same amount of cyprodinil as 7 oz of Vangard (70% of label rate). Inspire Super has a 12 hr REI and a 14 day PHI.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure, *NYTrionic]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although many of these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management, especially during the critical bloom through early post-bloom period. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes-do not use on this variety; caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars provided under the listing for Revus Top. Such injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

34270

INTUITY 4SC

^INTUITY 4SC (mandestrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin (QoI)

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high?

Physical mode of action: protectant, antisporulant, limited post-infection (?)

Selected uses: Botrytis

Comments: ^Intuity is a strobilurin fungicide for control of Botrytis and suppression of powdery mildew. In limited NY and PA trials, ^Intuity has provided good to fair control of Botrytis equivalent to current standards like Elevate, Vangard, Scala, and Switch. The label rate is 6 fl. oz/A with a maximum number of three applications (two is recommended) and 18 fl oz per season. Do not make sequential applications; rotate with non-FRAC 11 materials (Elevate, Endura, Fracture, Inspire super, Rovral, Scala, Switch, Vangard) and allow at least 20 days between ^Intuity applications. ^Intuity is at risk for resistance development by the Botrytis fungus and it is essential that its use be limited to rotations with other, unrelated Botrytis fungicides both within and between seasons in order to maintain activity into the future. Do NOT rely on one single material, or chemical/fungicide family, year after year. Refer to the Botrytis discussion under the "pest information" section for further information on fungicide management strategies for Botrytis. ^Intuity is rainfast within 2 hours of application, has an REI of 12 hours and PHI of 10 days.

CAUTIONS: Do not use ^Intuity on V. labrusca, V. labrusca hybrids or other non-vinifera hybrids. Avoid mixing with organosilicone surfactants.

34271

JMS STYLET OIL

JMS STYLET OIL - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 778-9538

Chemical/fungicide family: petroleum oil

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, eradicant, modest protectant

Selected uses: Powdery mildew, spider mites - see insecticides

Comments: Effective against powdery mildew when used at 1 to 2 percent solution in relatively high-volume applications at 10- to 14-day intervals. JMS Stylet Oil is also labeled for control of Botrytis, but has not been effective against this disease in trials conducted in NY and some other eastern states. Do not concentrate beyond 2 percent (1 gal/50 gal water), regardless of water volume used. There are potential compatibility problems with various nutrient sprays and other pesticides, including Captan, *Vendex, and sulfur, and legal restrictions on their use with this product; check the label for details. JMS Stylet Oil provides significant eradicant activity against existing powdery mildew infections. However, this product works strictly by contact, so THOROUGH spray coverage is MANDATORY. Recent research shows that Stylet Oil provides moderate protective activity against new potential infections for 3 to 7 days after an application, but much of this is lost after a 1/4-inch rain, presumably due to wash-off. Both "conventional" and "organically-approved" formulations are available and appear to be comparably effective.

cautions: (1) Do not spray oils while temperatures are very high (above 85-90°F), or burning may occur. (2) Oils remove the waxy "bloom" from berry surfaces, giving them a "shiny" appearance; therefore, oils should not be used within at least 60 days of harvest on fruit to be sold for the fresh market.

note: In many, but not all controlled tests, two or more applications of JMS Stylet Oil near veraison have resulted in a modest but consistent lowering of Brix values (1° to 2°) at harvest. In contrast, a single application or multiple applications before this period typically have had no effect on Brix values.

34272

KALIGREEN 82 SP

KALIGREEN 82 SP (potassium bicarbonate) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 858-7378

Chemical/fungicide family: potassium salt

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited eradicant

Selected uses: powdery mildew

Comments: Kaligreen contains the same active ingredient as ^Armicarb 100 and Milstop, and works in a manner similar to those products and Nutrol, another potassium salt: fair control of powdery mildew but NO CONTROL OF OTHER DISEASES, although many are listed on the labels. As with all potassium salts, control is provided by contact action, so thorough spray coverage is mandatory and there is no residual activity. In trials conducted over several years in New York, all of the potassium salt products have provided similar levels of control when used at their labeled rates.

34273

LUNA EXPERIENCE

*NY†LUNA EXPERIENCE (17.6% fluopyram + 17.6% tebuconazole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: SDHI + sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 7, 3

Resistance risk: moderate (each component)

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, Botrytis, black rot

Comments: *NYLuna Experience is a combination product consisting of two active ingredients: (i) fluopyram, a new "SDHI" (Group 7) fungicide similar to boscalid (the non-strobie component of Pristine) and benzovindiflupyr (*NYAprovia), which is active against powdery mildew and Botrytis. It is also the same SDHI active ingredient found in *NYLuna Sensation; and (ii) tebuconazole, the DMI (Group 3) fungicide now sold generically under several different names, which provides good control of black rot at sufficient rates and retains some activity against powdery mildew (see further comments under the entry for TEBUCONAZOLE).

*NY†Luna Experience is labeled for control of powdery mildew at 6.0-8.6 fl oz/A and for control of black rot and Botrytis at 8.0-8.6 fl oz/A. This higher rate is designed to provide the full rate of fluopyram needed to control Botrytis reliably and the full rate of tebuconazole needed to control black rot reliably. Like most modern fungicides, the SDHI (Group 7) materials such as fluopyram are at risk for resistance development. Thus, it is recommended that use of all Group 7 products be limited to a maximum of two applications per season in total. As noted elsewhere, it also is recommended that use of all Group 3 products be limited to a maximum of three applications per season in total.

34274

LUNA sensation

*NY†LUNA sensation (21.4% fluopyram + 21.4% trifloxystrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: SDHI + strobilurin

Resistance Group Number: 7, 11

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, Botrytis, black rot

Comments: *NYLuna Sensation is a combination product consisting of two active ingredients: (i) fluopyram, a new "SDHI" (Group 7) fungicide similar to boscalid (the non-strobie component of Pristine), benzovindiflupyr (*NYAprovia), and pydiflumetofen (one of the ingredients in ^Miravis Prime) which is active against powdery mildew and Botrytis. It is also the same SDHI active ingredient found in *NYLuna Experience; and (ii) trifloxystrobin, the strobilurin (Group 11) fungicide now sold under the Flint/Flint Extra name, which provides good to excellent control of powdery mildew (in the absence of resistance to strobilurins) and black rot, and control of Botrytis at higher rates (see further comments under the entry for FLINT EXTRA). Please refer to the discussion under FLINT EXTRA for cautions regarding this and other trifloxystrobin products. The label specifies that you do not apply or allow drift to Concord grapes or crop injury may occur. Rinse spray equipment before application of other products to Concord grapes.

*NY†Luna Sensation is labeled for control of powdery mildew at 4.0-7.6 fl oz/A, control of black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis at 5.0-7.6 fl oz/A, and suppression of downy mildew at the maximum rate of 7.6 fl oz/A. Activity against black rot, Phomopsis, and downy mildew comes from the trifloxystrobin component, whereas both active ingredients have activity against Botrytis and powdery mildew. For black rot and Botrytis control, the 5-7.6 fl oz rate of *NY†Luna Sensation should deliver enough trifloxystrobin for good to excellent control of these diseases (equivalent to about 2.5-3.8 fl oz of Flint Extra, that has about twice the concentration of trifloxystrobin as *NY†Luna Sensation). Of course, this level of Botrytis control would only apply in the absence of strobilurin resistance by this pathogen. The 7.6 fl oz rate for Phomopsis and downy mildew is about the same dose of trifloxystrobin as the 3.8 fl oz rate on the Flint Extra label for these diseases, still only providing for suppression of downy mildew. For powdery mildew control, the 4-7.6 fl oz label rate delivers a wider range of fluopyram than the 6-8.6 fl oz powdery mildew rate on the *NY†Luna Experience label, but they're about the same. For example, 6 and 8.6 fl ozs of *NY†Luna Experience actually delivers a dose of fluopyram equivalent to 4.8 and 6.8 fl ozs of *NY†Luna Sensation. That same 4-7.6 fl oz powdery mildew rate also delivers about the same amount of trifloxystrobin as 2-3.8 fl oz of Flint Extra. In the absence of strobilurin resistance, this should make for a very potent combination against powdery mildew. Like most modern fungicides however, the SDHI (Group 7) such as fluopyram and strobilurin (Group 11) materials such as trifloxystrobin are at high risk for resistance development. Indeed, with powdery mildew resistance to strobilurin fungicides becoming commonplace in many eastern grape growing areas, control of that disease with this product may come primarily or solely from the SDHI chemistry. Thus, it is recommended that use of this product and all other Group 7 and 11 products be limited to a maximum of two applications per season in total. *NY†Luna Sensation has a 12-hr REI and a 14-day PHI.

34275

METEOR

METEOR (iprodione) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 424-9300

Chemical/fungicide family: dicarboxamide

Resistance Group Number: 2

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: Botrytis

Comments: See comments under listing for Rovral (same active ingredient).

34276

METTLE

METTLE (tetraconazole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 424-9300

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected use: powdery mildew, black rot

Comments: Mettle is a relatively new DMI fungicide first registered in NY for the 2014 season. In multiple NY and PA tests using the full label rate of 5 fl oz/A, it has been equivalent to or slightly more effective than older, traditional DMI fungicides such as the generic tebuconzole products, *NYProcure/*NYViticure, and Rally. The use of lower rates is not recommended, although it is allowed on the label. In Ohio tests, Mettle has also provided excellent control of black rot. It has a 12-hr REI and a 14-day PHI.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure, and *NYTrionic]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although many of these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management, especially during the critical bloom through early post-bloom period. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes - do not use on this variety; caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars provided under the listing for Revus Top. Such injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

34277

MIRAVIS PRIME

^MIRAVIS PRIME (12.8% pydiflumetofen + 21.4% fludioxonil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: carboxamide (SDHI) + phenylpyrrole

Resistance Group Number: 7 + 12

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post infection?, antisporulant?

Selected use: powdery mildew, black rot, Botrytis

Comments: ^Miravis Prime is a combination of a new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide (SDHI, Group 7) and an older phenylpyrrole active ingredient (Group 12), introduced about 25 years ago. In NY and PA trials, ^Miravis Prime has shown excellent activity against powdery mildew and good to excellent activity against black rot and Botrytis. ^Miravis Prime is also labeled for control of anthracnose and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, but there is little to no local experience with control of these other diseases using this product. The activity against powdery mildew and black rot are primarily from the SDHI component (pydiflumetofen). On the other hand, fludioxonil, also found in another combination product called Switch, is what provides the Botrytis control. ^Miravis Prime is said to accumulate in the waxy cuticle and "translocate through the leaves". ^Miravis Prime has a 12 hr REI and a 14 day PHI.

34278

NUTROL

NUTROL (dihydrogen potassium phosphate = monopotassium phosphate) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 424-9300

Chemical/fungicide family: potassium salt

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited eradicant

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: Monopotassium phosphate (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) is a fertilizer (K and P) that can be applied to both the soil and foliage. Nutrol is a monopotassium phosphate product that also provides moderate control of powdery mildew similar to that provided by the potassium bicarbonate products (^Armicarb, Kaligreen, Milstop) when sprayed onto fruit and foliage, and it is registered for that use. It provides no protective activity but significant post-infection activity when applied up to one week after the start of an infection. However, Nutrol has been relatively ineffective at eradicating well-established powdery mildew infections. It is most effective when used in alternation or tank mixes with traditional powdery mildew fungicides, or with short (7-day) spray intervals if applied two or more times in sequence. NOTE: For best results, Nutrol should be applied with a nonionic surfactant to increase coverage of the leaf and fruit surfaces, since it is not already formulated with one.

34279

OSO

OSO (polyoxin D zinc salt) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 255-3924

Chemical/fungicide family: polyoxins

Resistance Group Number: 19

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant (+ some post-infection vs. powdery mildew)

Selected uses: powdery mildew, Botrytis

Comments: Oso contains the active ingredient polyoxin D zinc salt, derived from a natural fermentation product of a soil-inhabiting microorganism, which prevents/inhibits synthesis of a component of fungal cell walls (chitin). As such, it has NO activity against the downy mildew organism, which does not synthesize chitin. Oso and other polyoxin D materials such as Ph-D have provided fair to good activity against powdery mildew and botrytis in limited NY and PA trials. Oso has a 4-hr REI and 0-day PHI.

34280

Ph-D

Ph-D (polyoxin D) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 303-6952

Chemical/fungicide family: polyoxins

Resistance Group Number: 19

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, Botrytis

Comments: Refer to information provided under the OSO entry.

34281

PHOSTROL, PROPHYT

PHOSTROL, PROPHYT (phosphorous acid = phosphonate = phosphite) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: ProPhyt: (800) 424-9300, Phostrol (877) 325-1840

Chemical/fungicide family: phosphorous acid (phosphite, phosphonate)

Resistance Group Number: 33

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: moderate protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: downy mildew

Comments: A number of products containing phosphorous acid (also called "phosphite" or "phosphonate") are sold as nutritional supplements and "plant conditioners," but only a few are registered for disease control on grapes; two that have proven efficacy in NY spray trials are ProPhyt and Phostrol, although others (e.g., Rampart, Reveille, Fosphite) have been effective in commercial use. In multiple trials, these products have provided very good to excellent control of downy mildew, but have not controlled any other grape disease. Although very active when applied up to 3-5 days after infection first begins (start of a suitable rainy period), they provide only limited residual protective activity (3-7 days, depending on conditions) against new infections that might occur following an application; hence, spray intervals should not exceed 10 days during periods of wet weather. These products have a 4 hr re-entry interval, 0 day preharvest interval, and are exempt from US-EPA residue tolerances (limits). Although phosphites are popular for midsummer use, it is important to remember that they are at moderate risk for resistance development. Resistance to these materials has occurred when they have been used intensively on other crops, and a reduction in performance has been noted in several NY vineyards over the past few years, although resistance has not been proven conclusively. Therefore, it is IMPORTANT that these products be rotated with other downy mildew fungicides during the growing season - do not apply them more than three times per season nor more than twice in a row before rotating to a different downy mildew fungicide. Follow individual label cautions to minimize the possibility of occasional leaf burn.

34282

PRESIDIO 4SC

*NYPRESIDIO 4SC (fluopicolide) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Chemical/fungicide family: benzamide

Resistance Group Number: 43

Resistance risk: high (?)

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant (reputedly; few data available)

Selected uses: downy mildew

Comments: *NYPresidio controls only downy mildew. In several field trials, it has been very effective for this purpose when used at the labeled rate of 3 to 4 fl oz/A at 14-day intervals under high disease pressure. It is absorbed by plant tissues, and therefore is not subject to wash-off by rain. Such materials typically provide post-infection and anti-sporulant activity along with some residual protectant action; these properties are claimed for Presidio as well. *NYPresidio is not related to any other fungicide currently registered on grapes other than *NYGavel (compared to which it is more effective), so is an option for use as a rotational component in a resistance management program. Due to its own risk of resistance development, the label (law) requires that *NYPresidio be applied in tank mixture with another fungicide registered for downy mildew control.

NOTE: Valent has pulled the grape use from the *NYPresidio label and any new product will not be legal for use on grapes. However, grape growers will be able to legally use up old stock of *NYPresidio with the grape use pattern on the label.

34283

PRISTINE 38WG

PRISTINE 38WG (13% pyraclostrobin + 25% boscalid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin (QoI) + SDHI

Resistance risk: high

Resistance Group Numbers: 11, 7

Resistance risk: moderate (powdery mildew, black rot) to high (downy mildew, Botrytis)

Physical mode of action: protectant, some post-infection (powdery mildew and partial Botrytis), antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis (fair), Botrytis, bitter rot, ripe rot

Comments: Pristine contains two unrelated active ingredients, pyraclostrobin and boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is a strobilurin fungicide that once provided excellent activity against powdery mildew and downy mildew in vineyards where these diseases had not developed resistance to the strobilurins, although resistance to both is common now. It provides very good activity against black rot, fair to good (?) activity against Phomopsis, and once provided fair activity against Botrytis (at higher rates), although resistance appears to be common now. It also provides very good control of the "summer rot" diseases (bitter rot and ripe rot) that are common in more southerly regions. Boscalid (also sold as a solo product under the trade name, Endura) provides excellent control of powdery mildew, even in strobilurin-resistant sites, and fair to excellent control of Botrytis, depending on the rate used; however, it has little to no activity against downy mildew or black rot. Thus, Pristine typically provides very good to excellent control of powdery mildew (see Resistance Warning below), black rot, and the "summer rot" diseases; fair to good control of Phomopsis; and fair control of Botrytis when used at a rate of 8 to 10.5 oz/A. Botrytis control historically has been good at the highest "standard" label rate of 12.5 oz/A, and very good to excellent in several trials when used at a rate of 19 oz/A. Pristine also once provided excellent control of downy mildew and will still do so in vineyards where this disease has not developed resistance to the strobilurins and other Group 11 fungicides. However, downy mildew resistance to the Group 11 fungicides has become a problem in multiple NY vineyards and the boscalid component of Pristine does not control this disease. Therefore, reliance upon Pristine or any other strobilurin product to control downy mildew is risky. PRISTINE IS PHYTOTOXIC ON CONCORD AND NOIRET (NY73.0136.17), SO SHOULD NOT BE USED ON THESE VARIETIES. It should also be used with caution on Steuben and Rougeon, where injury has occurred irregularly. It has a 14-day preharvest interval and a usual 12-hour re-entry interval, regardless of rate used; however, the REI increases to 5 days if conducting cane tying, turning, or girdling operations on treated vines. In New York State, do not use within 100 feet of an aquatic habitat.

resistance warning: Powdery and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Azaka, Flint/Flint Extra (and the Flint component of Luna Sensation), Sovran, the pyraclostrobin component of Pristine, *NY†Reason, and the azoxystrobin component of Quadris Top, Topguard EQ, and *NYDexter Max) has occurred in multiple vineyards throughout NY and various mid-Atlantic regions, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. Thus, it is now risky to rely on strobilurin fungicides for control of either powdery or downy mildew. When such resistance occurs, none of the strobilurin fungicides will provide commercial control of the affected disease, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. Pristine, a product that combines a strobilurin fungicide (pyraclostrobin) with an unrelated material (boscalid), has provided good control of strobilurin-resistant POWDERY mildew populations. The same can be said for *NY†Luna Sensation, which combines a strobilurin (trifloxystrobin) with fluopyram. However, in such vineyards, this control comes primarily from the boscalid (or fluopyram) component, which also is at risk for resistance development; hence, Pristine and *NY†Luna Sensation also should be used sparingly and with caution where problems with strobilurins have been encountered. Furthermore, note that the boscalid component of Pristine (and the fluopyram component of *NY†Luna Sensation) does NOT provide control of DOWNY mildew, so it will not help control the development of this disease should DM resistance to the strobilurins be present. Similarly, the difenoconazole and flutriafol components of the combination products Quadris Top and Topguard EQ, respectively, will not control downy mildew if the strobilurin component fails. Although Botrytis resistance to the strobilurins has not been documented in NY or PA vineyards, it is very common in Virginia and is likely to be present here as well. Where still effective, it is critical to use the strobilurins in a manner that minimizes the probability or speed of future resistance development. Make no more than two applications per year of all Group 11 products (combined), and do not make two consecutive applications of a Group 11 product. Never use the strobilurins or related Group 11 products as the only fungicide group for control of powdery or downy mildew throughout the season. Always rotate them with an unrelated fungicide, even on varieties receiving a minimal number of fungicide sprays per season. Be sure to use appropriate labeled rates and spray intervals and assure thorough spray coverage. On varieties highly susceptible to powdery mildew and not sulfur sensitive, tank-mixing sulfur with the strobilurin fungicides will give an extra measure of protection at a relatively low cost, as will the inclusion of boscalid or difenoconazole as the non-strobilurin components of Pristine and Quadris Top, respectively. Unfortunately, there are no similarly economical tank-mix alternatives or combination products available for control of strobilurin-resistant downy mildew populations.

34284

PROCURE 480SC

*NYPROCURE 480SC (triflumizole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 292-5898 (see label)

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: high

Mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: Refer to information provided under the listing for *NYVITICURE (same active ingredient).

34285

Prolivo 300SC

Prolivo 300SC (pyriofenone) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: 888-484-7546

Chemical/fungicide family: benzphenone

Resistance risk: moderate/high?

Resistance group: U8

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew (only)

Comments: Prolivo contains an active ingredient that is in the same FRAC group as the active ingredient in Vivando. In limited NY trial work on Chardonnay, it provided control of powdery mildew - at the 4 and 5 fl oz label rates - similar to that of Vivando at the 10 fl oz rate. To limit the risk of developing resistance to Prolivo, the label specifies no more than two applications in a row before alternating to a different material. Prolivo has a 4 hr REI and a 0-day PHI (compare this to the 12 hr REI and 14-day PHI for Vivando).

34286

PURESPRAY ("GREEN" AND "^FOLIAR")

PURESPRAY ("GREEN" AND "^FOLIAR") - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (403) 296-3000 or (844) 388-2665 (see label)

Chemical/fungicide family: petroleum oil

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: post-infection, anti-sporulant, eradicant, modest protectant

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: Both Purespray products (the "Green" formulation is approved for organic production) have provided good control of powdery mildew in several research trials conducted in NY. The oil is very similar to JMS Stylet Oil in composition and activity, and has provided comparable results when used at the same rate. The precautions regarding pesticide compatibilities and potential Brix reductions, listed previously for JMS Stylet Oil, apply equally to the Purespray products.

34287

Quadris Top

Quadris Top (18.2% azoxystrobin + 11.4% difenoconazole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin (QoI) + sterol inhibitor (DMI subgroup)

Resistance Group Numbers: 11, 3

Resistance risk: moderate (powdery mildew, black rot) to high (downy mildew)

Physical mode of action: protectant, selective post-infection (powdery mildew, black rot, some Botrytis), antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, anthracnose

Comments: Quadris Top contains a mixture of two active ingredients: (i) difenoconazole, the DMI fungicide component of Revus Top and Inspire Super, which provides very good to excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose; and (ii) azoxystrobin, the active ingredient in Abound, which in the absence of resistance to the strobilurins provides activity against downy mildew in addition to the preceding diseases. The label rate is 12-14 fl oz/A; 14 fl oz of this product contains the same amount of difenoconazole as 7 fl oz of Revus Top or 20 fl oz of Inspire Super; it also contains the same amount of azoxystrobin as 11 fl oz of Abound (the minimum label rate for Abound). Quadris Top has a 12 hr REI and a 14 day PHI.

CAUTION: Do not use Quadris Top on Concord grapes (the difenoconazole component causes injury). Also, Quadris Top is extremely phytotoxic to certain apple varieties due to its azoxystrobin component, which is the same active ingredient contained in Abound. DO NOT spray apple trees with equipment that has been used previously to apply Quadris Top to grapes or any other crop.

RESISTANCE AND OTHER WARNINGS: Please refer to the entry beneath "ABOUND" for information concerning resistance risks, PA township restrictions, and damage to apple cultivars associated with azoxystrobin use. Please refer to the entry beneath "REVUS TOP" for information concerning resistance risks and damage to Concord and other specific grape cultivars associated with difenoconazole use.

34288

QUINTEC 250SC

QUINTEC 250SC (quinoxyfen) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 992-5994

Chemical/fungicide family: azanaphthalene (quinoline)

Physical mode of action: protectant

Resistance Group Number: 13

Resistance risk: moderate

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: Quintec was the first fungicide in a relatively new chemical family, the azanaphthalines (quinolines). It is unrelated to any grape fungicide currently registered in North America, so it controls powdery mildew colonies that are resistant to other fungicide groups. It has provided excellent control of powdery mildew in multiple NY trials and commercial vineyards. However, Quintec is at risk for resistance development, so it should not be used more than two to three times per season, ideally not twice in a row, and it should always be used in rotation with other effective powdery mildew fungicides. Quintec does not provide control of any disease other than powdery mildew. It is strictly a protectant fungicide that must be present before the powdery mildew fungus begins the infection process; it does not provide any post-infection or eradicative activity. Although the current label allows a wide range of use rates and spray intervals, we recommend a rate of 3-4 fl oz/A at no more than 14-day spray intervals. Quintec has a 12-hr re-entry interval and a 21 day preharvest interval.

34289

RALLY 40WSP

RALLY 40WSP (myclobutanil) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 992-5994

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected uses: black rot, powdery mildew, anthracnose

Comments: Do not exceed 14-day intervals between applications. The maximum allowance for Rally is 24 oz/A/year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Rally should be sprayed out as soon as possible if it is tank-mixed with a copper compound. Periods of several hours or more in a solution with copper can reduce the effectiveness of Rally.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although many of these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management, especially during the critical bloom through early post-bloom period. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes-do not use on this variety; caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars provided under the listing for Revus Top. Such injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

34290

RAMPART

RAMPART (phosphorous acid = phosphite, phosphonate) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 944-8565

Chemical/fungicide family: Phosphorous acid (phosphite, phosphonate)

Resistance Group Number: 33

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: moderate protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: Downy mildew

Comments: Refer to comments within entry for PHOSTROL, PROPHYT

34291

RANMAN 400SC

RANMAN 400SC (cyazofamid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (888) 484-7546

Chemical/fungicide family: cyanoimidizole [QiI activity group]

Resistance Group Number: 21

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: downy mildew

Comments: Ranman represents a new class of chemistry for use on grapes, providing an additional option for control of downy mildew in rotational programs. It has provided good to very good control in several NY trials when used alone; tank mixing with a phosphite product has provided excellent control, presumably by adding significant post-infection activity to the mix. Ranman has a 12 hr REI and a 30-day PHI.

34292

REASON

*NYREASON (fenamidone) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: imidazolinone (QoI activity)

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, antisporulant, limited post-infection (presumed; few data available)

Selected uses: downy mildew

Comments: *NY†Reason is a relatively new product for control of downy mildew (only). It has provided excellent results in limited NY trials where resistance to the strobilurins and other Group 11 products is not present, but such resistance is becoming increasingly common and reliance upon these materials for downy mildew control is risky. *NY†Reason has a 12 hr REI and a 30-day PHI.

RESISTANCE WARNING: Although not in the same chemical class as the strobilurins, *NY†Reason has the same biochemical mode of activity; thus, fungal individuals resistant to the strobilurins are resistant to *NY†Reason, and vice versa. Consequently, all of these materials are placed within "Group 11" for resistance management purposes and should be treated as part of the same class. Downy mildew resistance to the these products (including Abound, Azaka, Flint, Sovran, the pyraclostrobin component of Pristine and the azoxystrobin component of Quadris Top) has occurred in multiple vineyards throughout NY and various mid-Atlantic regions, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. When such resistance occurs, none of the Group 11 fungicides will provide commercial levels of control, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. Where still effective, it is critical to use the Group 11 fungicides in a manner that minimizes the probability or speed of future resistance development. Make no more than two applications per year of all Group 11 products (combined), and do not make two consecutive applications of any Group 11 product. Never use the strobilurins or related Group 11 products such as Reason as the only fungicide group for control of powdery or downy mildew throughout the season. Always rotate them with an unrelated fungicide, even on varieties receiving a minimal number of fungicide sprays per season.

34293

REGALIA

REGALIA (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 222-1222

Chemical/fungicide family: biopesticide

Resistance Group Number: P5

Resistance risk: resistance not known

Physical mode of action: protectant (induces plant resistance and promotes plant growth/stress tolerance)

Selected uses: powdery mildew

Comments: Regalia is a relatively new product and although it is labeled for powdery mildew, Botrytis and downy mildew, it has only been effective in NY trials against powdery mildew on grapes. Regalia was most effective in trials where disease pressure was moderate, and did not perform as well under high disease pressure. Control of Botrytis and downy mildew on grapes in NY was poor. The first time Regalia is applied in the season, it requires 48 hours to fully activate plant defenses, but subsequent applications only require 3-4 hours for activation. The manufacturer recommends it be applied with a spreader-sticker for best efficacy and that 3-4 hours of drying time is needed prior to rain. When applied, the pH of the spray mixture should be kept between 6 and 8. Regalia has a 4 hr REI and a 0 day PHI. A new formulation (Regalia CG) was registered in NY in Fall 2018 with the same active ingredient, REI and PHI. It lists powdery mildew, Botrytis, downy mildew, ripe rot, and sour rot on the label, but the efficacy of this formulation has not yet been tested in NY or PA.

34294

REVUS 2SC

REVUS 2SC (mandipropamid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: carboxylic acid amide (CAA)

Resistance Group Number: 40

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, modest post-infection, antisporulant (reputedly; few data available)

Selected uses: downy mildew

Comments: Revus controls only downy mildew, and has provided excellent control in several different NY trials. It is absorbed by plant tissues, and therefore is not subject to wash-off by rain. The active ingredient in Revus (mandipropamid) is one component of the combination product, Revus Top. Revus has a 4 hr REI and a 14-day PHI.

resistance warning: Downy mildew resistance to Group 40 fungicides has been found in three vineyards in Virginia and one in North Carolina (Xuewen Feng and Anton Baudoin, 2018). This group of fungicides is represented by mandipropamid (Revus/Revus Top) and dimethomorph (one of the ingredients in *NYZampro). The label allows a maximum of four applications per season, but we recommend no more than three applications of *NY†Zampro and Revus (or Revus Top) combined, and no more than two sequential applications of a Group 40 product before rotating to a product that does not contain a Group 40 material.

34295

REVUS Top 4SC

REVUS Top 4SC (21.9% difenoconazole + 21.9% mandipropamid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup] + carboxylic acid amide (CAA)

Resistance Group Numbers: 3, 40

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: for black rot, powdery mildew, and anthracnose = limited protectant, good post-infection and antisporulant; for downy mildew = protectant, modest post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: black rot, downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose

Comments: Revus Top contains a mixture of two active ingredients: (i) difenoconazole, a DMI fungicide with very good to excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose; and (ii) mandipropamid, the active ingredient in Revus 2SC, which provides downy mildew activity. The label rate of 7 fl oz/A provides the same amount of difenoconazole as 20 fl oz /A of Inspire Super or 14 fl oz/A of Quadris Top; it also provides the same amount of mandipropamid as 7 fl oz/A of Revus 2SC (label rate of Revus 2 SC = 8 fl oz/A). The 7 fl oz rate of Revus Top has provided excellent control of downy mildew in multiple NY trials conducted under heavy disease pressure. Revus Top has a 12 hr REI and a 14 day PHI.

resistance warning: Downy mildew resistance to Group 40 fungicides has been found in three vineyards in Virginia and one in North Carolina (Xuewen Feng and Anton Baudoin, 2018). This group of fungicides is represented by mandipropamid (Revus/Revus Top) and dimethomorph (one of the ingredients in *NYZampro). The label allows a maximum of four applications per season, but we recommend no more than three applications of *NY†Zampro and Revus (or Revus Top) combined, and no more than two sequential applications of a Group 40 product before rotating to a product that does not contain a Group 40 material. Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure, *NYTrionic]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although many of these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management, especially during the critical bloom through early post-bloom period. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole causes leaf burn when sprayed onto Concord grapes - do not use on this variety. Caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars listed below. Injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

Treated cultivars on which some injury has been observed: Brianna, Canadice, Concord, Concord Seedless, Frontenac (minor), Glenora, Noiret (minor), Skujinsh 675 [interspecific hybrid containing V. vinifera, V. amurensis, V. labrusca, and V. riparia], St. Croix (minor), Thomcord (Thompson seedless x Concord).

Treated cultivars on which NO injury has been observed: All V. vinifera cultivars, Aurora, Baco Noir, Catawba, Cayuga White, Chambourcin, Chancellor, Chelois, Colobel , Corot Noir, DeChaunac, Delaware, Diamond, Elvira, Foch, Fredonia, Interlaken, Leon Millot, Niagara, Rougeon, Seyval Blanc, Steuben, Traminette, Vidal Blanc, Vignoles.

34296

RHYME

†RHYME (flutriafol) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 331-3148

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor (DMI subgroup)

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: postinfection, limited protectant, antisporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew, black rot

Comments: Flutriafol is a DMI (Group 3) fungicide that is newly registered on grapes. As a solo product, it is sold as Rhyme; it is also sold as Topguard EQ in combination with the strobilurin fungicide, azoxystrobin (the active ingredient in Abound and other products). Rhyme has provided very good control of powdery mildew in multiple NY trials; in general, it has been slightly more active than older Group 3 products such as Rally and *NYProcure/*NYViticure/*NYTrionic, but slightly less active than difenoconazole (Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top). It has provided excellent control of black rot in trials in other states also. It has a 12 hr REI (5 days for girdling or turning of grapes) and a 14 day PHI.

34297

RIDOMIL GOLD/COPPER

RIDOMIL GOLD/COPPER (mefanoxam plus copper -hydroxide) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: phenylamide plus elemental copper

Resistance Group Number: 4

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, postinfection, antisporulant

Selected use: downy mildew

Comments: Not for use prebloom; if a prebloom application of Ridomil Gold is desired, use Ridomil Gold MZ. Ridomil Gold is an outstanding fungicide against downy mildew, but the causal organism develops resistance to it very quickly when the product is used intensively, e.g., this fungicide became ineffective in the humid viticultural regions of Europe soon after its introduction many years ago. To reduce the risk of developing resistance, (i) use no more than two applications of Ridomil Gold per season (MZ and copper formulations combined), although one per season is safer; (ii) if using twice in a season, never apply it in two consecutive sprays without another downy mildew fungicide in between; and (iii) do not attempt "rescue" treatments with these products if an epidemic is in progress. Do not apply Ridomil Gold/Copper within 42 days of harvest; this is a shorter withholding period than that for Ridomil Gold MZ, which has a 66-day PHI.

34298

RIDOMIL GOLD MZ WG

RIDOMIL GOLD MZ WG (mefanoxam plus mancozeb) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: phenylamide plus EDBC

Resistance Group Number: 4

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: downy mildew; some black rot, Phomopsis (see below)

Comments: Do not use within 66 days of harvest (note that this is a longer PHI than that for Ridomil Gold/Copper, which has a 42 day PHI). At the labeled rate of 2.5 lb/A, Ridomil Gold MZ provides the same amount of mancozeb as standard products (e.g., Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb) applied at 2 lb/A of their 75DF formulations. Thus, it will provide moderate control of black rot and Phomopsis, but significantly less than the recommended 3- to 4-lb/A rate of the standard mancozeb products. Therefore, it should be supplemented with additional mancozeb if good control of these other diseases is desired. The downy mildew organism develops resistance to Ridomil Gold very quickly when it is used intensively. Please refer to the resistance-management comments under RIDOMIL GOLD/ COPPER.

34299

ROVRAL

ROVRAL (iprodione) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: dicarboximide

Resistance Group Number: 2

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: Do not allow spray mixture to stand for prolonged periods, as some chemical breakdown may occur, particularly in water with a high pH. Addition of a nonionic surfactant (or oil) often improves results, particularly at the lower labeled rates. Do not enter the treated area within 48 hours of application unless proper protective clothing is worn. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest.

resistance warning: Resistance has developed in many parts of the world where Rovral or other iprodione products have been used over a long period of time. However, resistance levels typically decrease substantially after these fungicides have been removed from the spray program for one or more seasons, allowing their subsequent reintroduction into the program on a limited basis. Limit the use of Rovral or other iprodione products (e.g., Meteor) to a maximum of one application per year, and make at least one other application of an unrelated product with good Botrytis activity.

34300

SCALA

SCALA (pyrimethanil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Chemical/fungicide family: anilinopyridine

Resistance Group Number: 9

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, antisporulant

Selected use: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: Scala is an anilinopyrimidine (AP; Group 9) fungicide that is very similar to cyprodinil (Vangard; also one component of Inspire Super and †Switch) in its activity and risk of resistance development. Should the Botrytis fungus develop resistance to one AP fungicide, it will also be resistant to the other, and rotating cyprodinil products with Scala will NOT help delay resistance to either. Therefore, make no more than two applications per season of all Group 9 products combined, and if only two Botrytis fungicide sprays are applied in one season, do not use only products from this or any other single Fungicide Group for both sprays.

34301

SOVRAN 50WG

SOVRAN 50WG (kresoxim-methyl) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Chemical/fungicide family: strobilurin [QoI]

Resistance Group Number: 11

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, variable but limited post-infection, antisporulant

Selected uses: powdery mildew, black rot, some downy mildew, anthracnose, some Phomopsis

Comments: Sovran is a strobilurin fungicide, chemically related to Abound, Flint, and one component of Pristine. It has provided excellent activity against powdery mildew in vineyards where resistance has not developed. However, the powdery mildew fungus has developed resistance to all strobilurin fungicides in multiple vineyards, resulting in poor control of this disease in the affected blocks (see below). Like the other strobilurins, Sovran is very good against black rot and fair against Phomopsis. Unlike Abound and Pristine, it is only fair against downy mildew even when resistance to the Group 11 fungicides is not present (see below). Sovran is registered for "suppression" of Botrytis; it was fair to good for this purpose in a limited number of NY trials years ago, although this and other strobilurin products seem to have lost much of their activity since then due to resistance. Sovran has a 12-hr restricted entry interval and a 14-day preharvest interval.

resistance warning: Powdery and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Azaka, Flint/Flint Extra (and the Flint component of Luna Sensation), Sovran, the pyraclostrobin component of Pristine, *NY†Reason, and the azoxystrobin component of Quadris Top, Topguard EQ, and *NYDexter Max) has occurred in multiple vineyards throughout NY and various mid-Atlantic regions, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. Thus, it is now risky to rely on strobilurin fungicides for control of either powdery or downy mildew. When such resistance occurs, none of the strobilurin fungicides will provide commercial control of the affected disease, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. Pristine, a product that combines a strobilurin fungicide (pyraclostrobin) with an unrelated material (boscalid), has provided good control of strobilurin-resistant POWDERY mildew populations. The same can likely be said for *NY†Luna Sensation, which combines a strobilurin (trifloxystrobin) with fluopyram. However, in such vineyards this control comes primarily from the boscalid (or fluopyram) component, which also is at risk for resistance development; hence Pristine and *NY†Luna Sensation also should be used sparingly and with caution where problems with strobilurins have been encountered. Furthermore, note that the boscalid component of Pristine (and the fluopyram component of *NY†Luna Sensation) does NOT provide control of DOWNY mildew, so it will not help control the development of this disease should DM resistance to the strobilurins be present. Similarly, the difenoconazole and flutriafol components of the combination products Quadris Top and Topguard EQ, respectively, will not control downy mildew if the strobilurin component fails. However, the mancozeb component in *NYDexter Max will still provide control of downy mildew if the azoxystrobin component fails to do so. Where still effective, it is critical to use the strobilurins in a manner that minimizes the probability or speed of future resistance development. Make no more than two applications per year of all Group 11 products (combined), and do not make two consecutive applications of a Group 11 product. Never use the strobilurins or related Group 11 products as the only fungicide group for control of powdery or downy mildew throughout the season. Always rotate them with an unrelated fungicide, even on varieties receiving a minimal number of fungicide sprays per season. Be sure to use appropriate labeled rates and spray intervals and assure thorough spray coverage. On varieties highly susceptible to powdery mildew and not sulfur sensitive, tank-mixing sulfur with the strobilurin fungicides will give an extra measure of protection at a relatively low cost, as will the inclusion of the non-strobilurin components of the combination products Pristine, Quadris Top, and Topguard EQ. There is a combination product available (see *NYDexter Max) for control of strobilurin-resistant downy mildew individuals.

34302

SULFUR

SULFUR (several formulations) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: read the label

Chemical/fungicide family: elemental sulfur

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant, some eradicant

Selected use: powdery mildew

Comments: Do not enter treated area within 24 hours of application unless proper protective clothing is worn. Some native grape cultivars (such as Concord) and red hybrids may be injured by sulfur (see Table 3.1.2 for varietal sensitivity). Sulfur activity is strongly influenced by formulation, by rate and frequency of application, and by weather. It generally is highly effective when applied at relatively high rates and short (7- to 10-day) spray intervals, but efficacy can decline as intervals increase and/or rates decrease. It is subject to wash-off, and reapplications may need to be more frequent after significant rainfall. "Micronized" (e.g., Microthiol) and liquid formulations are somewhat more rainfast than standard wettable powder formulations. Use with a "spreader-sticker" adjuvant improves control under high rainfall conditions, as does increasing the rate of product applied. Although "conventional wisdom" has long held that sulfur activity is reduced significantly at temperatures below 65°F, research conducted in both NY and Australia suggests little to no effect of temperature on disease control when applied within the temperature range where powdery mildew is active. Do not apply sulfur within 14-21 days of a spray oil application, or plant injury may occur (see specific oil and sulfur product labels for cautions). For organic growers, there are OMRI approved formulations of micronized sulfur (e.g., Microthiol).

34303

SWITCH

SWITCH (cyprodinil + fludioxonil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: anilinopyrimidine + phenylpyrrole

Resistance Group Number: 9, 12

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected uses: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: †Switch is a combination product containing i) cyprodinil, the active ingredient in Vangard (controls primarily Botrytis) and ii) fludioxonil, a fungicide with a relatively broad spectrum of activity, including Botrytis. Fludioxonil is also found in another combination product called ^Miravis Prime. The fludioxonil component is relatively expensive to produce and makes †Switch more costly than Vangard, but is added to reduce the chance of Botrytis developing resistance to cyprodinil and to provide some control of certain miscellaneous spoilage rots that can develop on injured berries before harvest. At the labeled rate of 11 to 14 oz/A, †Switch provides the same dose of cyprodinil as 5.5 to 6.8 oz/A of Vangard (the label rate for Vangard applied alone is 10 oz/A). At the 14-oz rate, †Switch has provided somewhat better control of Botrytis than the 10-oz rate of Vangard in some, but not all, of a limited number of research trials in NY. †Switch has a 12-hr REI and a 7-day PHI. †SWITCH IS NOT REGISTERED FOR USE ON LONG ISLAND.

34304

TAVANO

TAVANO - see listing for OSO

34305

TEBUCONAZOLE

TEBUCONAZOLE (several products) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: read the label

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected uses: black rot, powdery mildew

Comments: Tebuconazole still provides excellent activity against black rot, but activity against powdery mildew has been compromised in some vineyards, particularly on highly susceptible cultivars; see resistance warning below concerning powdery mildew control.

Generic formulations: The patent on tebuconazole, the active ingredient in the former product ^Elite (no longer marketed), has expired and several manufacturers are now formulating other products that contain this same active ingredient.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products [Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top], flutriafol products [Rhyme, Topguard EQ], Mettle, Rally, tebuconazole products, triflumizole products [*NYProcure, *NYViticure, *NYTrionic]) is a common problem throughout the world, including New York and Pennsylvania. Although these fungicides continue to provide significant commercial control in most vineyards, they generally are less effective than they were in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management. Nevertheless, the DMI fungicides will continue to be valuable in rotational programs with other powdery mildew fungicides, so it is important to implement four basic resistance management strategies to maintain their usefulness:

In addition to use rate and spray coverage, efficacy of any specific DMI product is affected by the "intrinsic" activity of its active ingredient, i.e., how much of it is needed to provide a certain level of control. Recent laboratory tests and field trials indicate that difenoconazole is significantly more active than the other DMIs with which it has been compared and is likely to provide better control at common use rates in many vineyards where resistance to these materials has started to develop.

CAUTION: Difenoconazole is phytotoxic (leaf burn) when sprayed onto Concord grapes-do not use on this variety; caution should also be used on other selected native and hybrid cultivars provided under the listing for Revus Top. Such injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other products (e.g., oils) that promote absorption by the plant.

34306

TOPGUARD EQ

†TOPGUARD EQ (flutriafol + azoxystrobin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 331-3148

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor (DMI subgroup) + QoI (strobilurin)

Resistance Group Number: 3 + 11

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: postinfection, protectant, antisporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew, black rot; moderate downy mildew (if no resistance)

Comments: Topguard EQ is a product containing two unrelated active ingredients, the DMI or Group 3 fungicide found in Rhyme (flutriafol) and the strobilurin or Group 11 fungicide (azoxystrobin) found in Abound and other related products. Please refer to the discussions provided above under ABOUND and RHYME for information regarding the activities of these two active ingredients, concerns and about resistance to the Group 3 and Group 11 fungicides, and cautions about the extreme phytotoxicity of azoxystrobin to some apple cultivars. Note that when applied at the rate of 5.0-6.0 fl oz/A labeled for control of powdery mildew and black rot, Topguard EQ provides an amount of flutriafol equivalent to that provided by the labeled rate of Rhyme but provides only 50-60% as much azoxystrobin as provided by the common 12 fl oz/A rate of Abound. This contribution should provide limited protective activity against black rot and limited activity against non-resistant powdery mildew strains in addition to the activity against those two diseases provided by the flutriafol component. Topguard EQ should not be relied upon for control of downy mildew due to the limited rate of azoxystrobin provided by labeled rates (even the highest one allowed), the widespread occurrence of resistance to the Group 11 fungicides, and the lack of flutriafol activity against this disease. Topguard EQ has a 12 hr REI (5 days for girdling or turning of grapes) and a 14 day PHI.

34307

TOPSIN M

TOPSIN M (thiophanate-methyl)

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 673-6671

Chemical/fungicide family: benzimidazole

Resistance Group Number: 1

Resistance risk: high

Physical mode of action: protectant, some post-infection, some anti-sporulant

Selected uses: see comments

Comments: Topsin-M is a benzimidazole fungicide very similar in activity to the former product ^Benlate, which no longer is available. Please note that the standard (federal) product label for Topsin-M does not include pruning wound treatments to control trunk canker diseases, which is the only use for which the product is recommended locally (although the material once was very active against both powdery mildew and Botrytis, resistance is so widespread that it is risky to use for control of these diseases). However, Topsin M WSB (EPA Reg. No. 73545-16) has received a Special Local Need label in NY for control of grape pruning wound cankers (Eutypa dieback and Botryosphaeria dieback). Special Local Need labeling for this is assigned SLN No. NY-070002; a copy of both the SLN and federal label must be in the possession of the user at the time of such an application. Note the different REIs depending on use, as indicated on the label.

34308

TORINO

TORINO (cyflufenamid) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (888) 478-0798

Chemical/fungicide family: phenylacetamide

Resistance Group Number: U6

Resistance risk: moderate (?)

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected use: Powdery mildew

Comments: Torino represents a new class of chemistry, with activity only against powdery mildew. It has given good to very good control of this disease when applied at 14-day intervals in multiple NY trials. Because it is unrelated to any other product used on grapes in North America, it can be rotated with all existing products for resistance management purposes. Torino has a 4-hr REI and a 3-day PHI. The label restricts its use to a maximum of two applications per year. Trial results suggest that it might be used most effectively in rotational programs to manage foliar infections during mid- and late summer.

34309

TRIONIC 4SC

*NYtrionic 4SC (triflumizole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: 1-866-673-6671

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected use: powdery mildew (only)

Comments: Trionic contains the same active ingredient (and the same amount of that ai) as *NYViticure. It is also labeled at the same use rates as *NYViticure (4-8 fl oz/A). Therefore it is very similar to *NYViticure with respect to use rates and the spectrum of target diseases affected. See entry under *NYViticure and Revus Top for additional product use, efficacy, and resistance management information.

34310

VANGARD

VANGARD (cyprodinil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Chemical/fungicide family: anilinopyrimidine

Resistance Group Number: 9

Resistance risk: moderate

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected use: Botrytis bunch rot

Comments: In research trials and grower usage, Vangard has consistently provided very good to excellent results against Botrytis bunch rot when applied at proper timings in conjunction with good canopy management practices. However, Vangard is at risk for resistance development by the Botrytis fungus, and although resistance has not been documented in NY or PA vineyards, it has in other locations. Therefore, it's critical that Vangard and other Group 9 fungicides (Inspire Super, Scala, †Switch) be used on a limited basis and in strict rotation with other, unrelated Botrytis fungicides both within and between seasons in order to maintain their activity into the future. Do NOT rely on one single material, or chemical/fungicide family, year after year. Make no more than a total of two applications per season of any Group 9 product and do not make two consecutive applications of these materials without separating them with an application of an unrelated material. Refer to the Botrytis discussion under the "pest information" section for further information on fungicide management strategies for Botrytis.

34311

VITICURE

*NYVITICURE (triflumizole) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 292-5898 (see label)

Chemical/fungicide family: sterol inhibitor [DMI subgroup]

Resistance Group Number: 3

Resistance risk: moderate

Mode of action: post-infection, antisporulant, limited protectant

Selected use: powdery mildew (only)

Comments: *NYViticure is an older DMI (Group 3) fungicide with activity against powdery mildew comparable to Rally; unlike Rally and the other Group 3 fungicides now registered on grapes, it does not provide reliable control of black rot under typical NY/PA conditions. It is labeled for use at 4-8 oz/A. Limited experience in the mid-1990s suggested that the 4 oz/A rate might have been adequate before bloom at that time, particularly on moderately resistant varieties, but that at least 6 oz/A was needed after bloom; it is likely that those rates will need to be higher today since powdery mildew populations have become increasingly tolerant of the DMI fungicides over time.

resistance warning: Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides is a common problem in New York and Pennsylvania. See entry under REVUS TOP for additional information on this topic.

34312

VIVANDO 2.5SC

VIVANDO 2.5SC (metrafenone) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Chemical/fungicide family: benzphenone

Resistance risk: moderate/high?

Resistance group: U8

Physical mode of action: protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected use: powdery mildew (only)

Comments: Vivando has provided excellent results in multiple trials in NY and other states. It is unrelated to any other fungicide product currently on the market, so should be very useful in rotational programs for resistance management purposes. To limit the risk of developing resistance to Vivando, the label specifies a maximum of three applications per year, and no more than two applications in a row before alternating to a different material. Vivando has a 12 hr REI and a 14-day PHI.

34313

ZAMPRO 4.4SC

*NY†ZAMPRO 4.4SC (ametoctradin + dimethomorph) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Chemical/fungicide family: triazolo-pyrimidylamine (QxI) + carboxylic acid amide (CAA)

Resistance risk: moderate

Resistance group: 45, 40

Physical mode of action: protectant, some post-infection, anti-sporulant

Selected use: downy mildew (only)

Comments: *NY†Zampro is a new downy mildew-specific fungicide. It contains two active ingredients, (i) ametotoctradin, which represents a new class of chemistry, with no other similar compounds yet on the market; and (ii) dimethomorph, an older Group 40 product in the same class as Revus (the downy mildew component of Revus Top). It has provided excellent control of downy mildew in several NY trials and elsewhere. Its physical mode of action is not well characterized, but it appears to have good protective activity; significant but limited post-infection activity; and anti-sporulant activity. *NY†Zampro has a 12 hr REI and a 14-day PHI.

resistance warning: Downy mildew resistance to Group 40 fungicides has been found in three vineyards in Virginia and one in North Carolina (Feng and Baudoin, 2018). This group of fungicides is represented by mandipropamid (Revus/Revus Top) and dimethomorph (one of the ingredients in *NYZampro). The label allows a maximum of four applications per season, but we recommend no more than three applications of *NY†Zampro and Revus (or Revus Top) combined, and no more than two sequential applications of a Group 40 product before rotating to a product that does not contain a Group 40 material.

34314

ZIRAM

ZIRAM

Signal word: DANGER

Medical emergency: (866) 673-6671

Chemical/fungicide family: dimethyldithiocarbamate

Resistance Group Number: N/A

Resistance risk: low

Physical mode of action: protectant

Selected uses: black rot, Phomopsis; some downy mildew

Comments: Do not enter the treated area within 48 hours after application unless proper protective clothing is worn. Ziram is similar to mancozeb products in its activity against black rot and Phomopsis, but is less effective than mancozeb against downy mildew. Ziram can be used from the 6-inch shoot growth stage until 21 days before harvest (maximum 24 lb/A/year). It is especially useful as a postbloom substitute for mancozeb where processor restrictions prohibit use of the latter.

34124

Table 3.2.1 Physical modes of action of and resistance risk of fungicides used in management of grape diseases1.

Fungicide

Protectanta

Post-infectionb

Anti-sporulantc

Eradicantd

Resistance risk

Resistance group

ametoctradin + dimethomorph (*NYZampro)

+

+

+?

-

M

40, 45

azoxystrobin (Abound, Azaka, Quadris Top, *NYDexter Max)e

+

+/-f

+

-

H

11

benzovindiflupyr (*NYAprovia, *NYAprovia Top)

+

+

+

-

M

7

boscalid (Endura)

+?

+

+?

-

M/H

7

boscalid + pyraclostrobin (Pristine)

+

+/-g

+

-

M/H

7, 11

captan (Captan, Captec)

+

-

-

-

L

N/Aj

copper (several formulations)

+

-i

-

-

L

N/Aj

cyazofamid (Ranman)

+

+/-?

+?

-

H?

21

cyprodinil (Vangard, Switch)

+

+

+

-

M/H

9

cyflufenamid (Torino)

+

+

+

-

M/H?

U6

difenoconazole (Inspire Super, Quadris Top, Revus Top, *NYAprovia Top)

+/-

+

+

-

M

3

fenamidone (*NYReason)

+

+/-

+

-

H

11

fenhexamid (Elevate)

+

+

+

-

M

17

fluopicolide (*NYPresidio)

+?

+?

+?

-

H?

43

fluopyram + tebuconazole (*NY†Luna Experience)

+

+

+

-

M

7, 3

fluopyram + trifloxystrobin (*NY†Luna Sensation)

+

+/-f

+

-

M/H

7,11

flutriafol (Rhyme, Topguard EQ) e

+

+

+

-

M/H

3, 11

iprodione (Rovral, Meteor)e

+

+

+

-

M

2

kresoxim-methyl (Sovran) e

+

+/-f

+

-

H

11

mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb)

+

-

-

-

L

N/Aj

mandestrobin (^Intuity)

+

+?

+?

-

H?

11

mandipropamid (Revus, Revus Top)

+?

+

+?

-

M

40

mefanoxam (Ridomil)

+

+

+

-

H

4

metrafenone (Vivando)

+?

+?

+?

-

M/H?

U8

myclobutanil (Rally)e

+/-

+

+

-

M

3

phosphorous acid (various formulations)

+/-

+

+

-

M

33

potassium bicarbonate (Kaligreen, ^Armicarb 100)h

-

+

+

+/-

L

N/Aj

potassium dihydrogen phosphate (Nutrol)h

-

+

+

+/-

L

N/Aj

pydiflumetofen + fludioxonil (^Miravis Prime)

+

+?

+?

-

M

7, 12

pyrimethanil (Scala)

+

+

+

-

H

9

quinoxyfen (Quintec) h

+

-

-

-

M

13

spray oil (JMS Stylet, PureSpray)h

+/-

+

+

+

L

N/Aj

sulfur (several formulations) f

+

+

+

+/-

L

N/Aj

tebuconazole (various formulations)e

+/-

+

+

-

M

3

tetraconazole (Mettle)

+/-

+

+

-

M

3

thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M)e

+

+

+

-

H

1

trifloxystrobin (Flint, Flint Extra)e

+

+/-f

+

-

H

11

triflumizole (*NYViticure, *NYProcure, *NYTrionic)e, f

+/-

+

+

-

M

3

ziram

+

-

-

-

L

N/Aj

zoxamide + mancozeb (*NYGavel)

+

+

+?

-

M

22

 1These ratings apply only to the diseases against which the products are labeled for control, and assume recommended rates and timings, and good spray coverage.

 Key:

 

 

 +

 significant activity

 

 

 +/-

 limited activity, or only active against some target pathogens in this mode

 

 

 -

 not active in this mode

 

 

 H = high, M = moderate, L = low

 

 Notes:

 a. Active when present before the pathogen begins to infect.

 b. Active when applied after infection has begun, but before symptoms appear.

 c. Significantly reduces spore production when applied after infection has occurred, although symptoms may develop or persist.

 d. Kills all or most of the fungal colony when applied after symptoms appear.

 e. Activities diminished or absent against pathogens resistant to the material.

 f. Significant post-infection activity against powdery mildew only.

 g. Significant post-infection activity against powdery mildew and Botrytis only.

 h. Significant activity against powdery mildew only.

 i. Modest post-infection activity likely against powdery mildew.

 j. N/A = No resistance group designated since resistance is unknown and unlikely; resistance management not required.

 * Federal restricted use pesticide.

 *NY Restricted-use pesticide in New York State.

  Not for use in Nassau/Suffolk Counties in New York

 ^ Not registered for use in New York State at press time

 

34125

Table 3.2.2 Effectiveness of fungicides for management of grape diseases1.

Fungicide

Phomopsis cane and leaf spot

Black rot

Downy mildew

Powdery mildew

Botrytis bunch rot

ametoctradin + dimethomorph (*NYZampro)

0

0

++++

0

0

Aureobasidium pullulans strains DSM 14940 and 14941 (Botector)

0

0

0

0

++/+++

azoxystrobin (Abound, Azaka)

++

++++

++++ a

++++a

+

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (Double Nickel)

?

0

0

++

++

Bacillus pumilis strain QST 2808 (Sonata)

?

?

+

++

+

Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD) polypeptides (Fracture)

?

0

0

+/++

++/+++

benzovindiflupyr (*NYAprovia)

?

++

0

++++

+

benzovindiflupyr + difenoconazole (*NYAprovia Top)

?/?

++++

0

++++

+

boscalid (Endura)

0

0

0

++++

++/++++b

boscalid + pyraclostrobin (Pristine)

++

++++

++++ a

++++a

++/++++b

captan (Captan, Captec)

++++

+

+++

0

+

copper (several formulations) c

+

+

+++

++

0

cyazofamid (Ranman)

0

0

+++

0

0

cyflufenamid (Torino)

0

0

0

+++

0

cyprodinil (Vangard)

0

0

0

+

++++

difenoconazole + azoxystrobin (Quadris Top)

++

++++

++++ a

++++a, f

+

difenoconazole + cyprodinil (Inspire Super)

0/+?

++++

0

++++f

+++j

difenoconazole + mandipropamid (Revus Top)

0/+?

++++

++++

++++f

0

dihydrogen potassium phosphate (Nutrol)

0

0

0

++

0

fenamidone (*NYReason)

0

0

++++k

0

0

fenhexamid (Elevate)

0

0

0

+

++++

fludioxonil + cyprodinil (Switch)

0

0

0

+

++++

fluopicolide (*NYPresidio)

0

0

++++

0

0

fluopyram + tebuconazole (*NY†Luna Experience)

+

+/+++ b

0

++++f

+/ +++b

fluopyram + trifloxystrobin (*NY†Luna Sensation)

?/++

+/+++ b

0?/+a

++++a

++++

flutriafol (Rhyme)

0

++++

0

+++f

0

flutriafol + azoxystrobin (Topguard EQ)a

+

++++

++a

+++a, f

+

iprodione (Rovral, Meteor)g

0

0

0

0

++++g

kresoxim-methyl (Sovran)

++

++++

++ a

++++a

++

mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb)

++++

+++

+++

+

0

mandestrobin (^Intuity)

0

0

0

+

+++

mandipropamid (Revus)

0

0

++++

0

0

mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top)

0/+?

++++

++++

++++f

0

mefanoxam (Ridomil)d

d

d

++++

d

0

metrafenone (Vivando)

0

0

0

++++

0

myclobutanil (Rally)f

0

++++

0

+++f

0

phosphorous acid (various formulations)

0

0

+++

0

0

polyoxin D (Oso, Ph-D)

?

0

0

++l

++

potassium salts (Nutrol, Kaligreen, ^Armicarb 100, Milstop)

0

0

0

++

0

pydiflumetofen + fludioxonil (^Miravis Prime)

?

++++

0

++++

+++

pyrimethanil (Scala)

0

0

0

+?

++++

quinoxyfen (Quintec)

0

0

0

++++

0

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (Regalia)

?

?

0

++/+++l

0

spray oil (JMS Stylet, PureSpray)

0

0

0

+++

0

sulfur (several formulations)e

+

0

0

+++e

0

tebuconazole (various formulations)f

0

++++

0

+++f

0

tetraconazole (Mettle)

?

++++

0

+++f

0

thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M) h

++

+

0

h

H

trifloxystrobin (Flint, Flint Extra)

++

++++

+ a

++++a

++/++++b

triflumizole (*NYViticure, *NYProcure, *NY Trionic)f

0

++?

0

+++f

0

ziram

++++

+++

++

0

0

zoxamide + mancozeb (*NYGavel)

++i

++i

+++

+

0

 1These ratings are relative rankings, based on standard application rates, good spray coverage, and proper spray timing. Actual levels of disease control will be influenced by these factors in addition to varietal susceptibility and disease pressure.

 Key:

 ++++ excellent

 +++ good

 ++ moderate

 + slight

 0 not effective

 Notes:

  1.  NOTE: Powdery mildew (PM) resistance to the strobilurin (Group 11) fungicides has occurred in multiple vineyards, sometimes resulting in significant crop loss. Downy mildew (DM) resistance to these fungicides also appears to be widespread, and has caused significant crop loss as well. Thus, it is now risky to rely on strobilurin fungicides for control of either powdery or downy mildew. When such resistance occurs, none of the Group 11 fungicides will provide commercial control of the affected disease if applied alone, and they must be combined with an effective rate of an unrelated fungicide to avoid potential crop loss. "Pre-mixed" strobilurin products such as Pristine, Quadris Top, †Topguard EQ, and *NY†Luna Sensation include an unrelated active ingredient that has good activity against powdery mildew but NO activity against downy mildew.
  1.   Fair control at the lower rate labeled for powdery mildew, good to excellent control at the higher rate labeled for other diseases.
  1.  Refers to fixed copper formulations listed in Table 8.3. Most insecticides labeled for use on grapes are incompatible with lime, which is often mixed with these products. Check insecticide label for incompatibility with alkaline spray materials. See New York Food and Life Sciences Bulletin No. 118 (www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pubs/fls/OCRPDF/118.pdf) for information on effects of alkaline hydrolysis on pesticides.
  1.  The Ridomil MZ formulation (Ridomil + mancozeb) will give moderate control of Phomopsis and black rot, due to the partial rate of mancozeb that is provided by applying the labeled rate of this product. The Ridomil Copper formulation will provide moderate suppression of powdery mildew, particularly on moderately resistant cultivars (e.g., Concord), due to the amount of copper provided by applying it labeled rate.
  1.  Sulfur activity is strongly influenced by rate and frequency of application, formulation, and by weather. It is highly effective when applied at relatively high rates and short (7-day) spray intervals, but efficacy can decline as intervals increase and/or rates decrease, especially in rainy weather. Micronized and flowable formulations are more persistent than wettable powders. "Spreader-sticker" adjuvants will increase persistence in rainy weather.
  1.  Powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides (difenoconazole products, Mettle, *NYProcure, Rally, flutriafol products, tebuconazole products,*NYViticure, *NY Trionic) appears to be present at varying levels throughout most of the viticultural districts of New York and Pennsylvania. Although these materials continue to provide significant control in most vineyards, they generally are less active than in the past and most should not be relied upon as the primary tool for powdery mildew management. Nevertheless, all DMI fungicides remain valuable in rotational programs with newer and often more active powdery mildew fungicides. Difenoconazole products have provided excellent control even in vineyards where other DMI products have started to "slip"; hence, its higher efficacy rating.
  1.  Resistance to iprodione often occurs in vineyards where this fungicide has been used regularly over a long period of time. However, iprodione resistance "dies down" over time if the product isn't used. Thus, assuming that this fungicide was avoided for 1 or 2 years after regular use in the past, it can be applied up to once per season if and when use resumes. Iprodione is very effective against Botrytis when not compromised by resistance.
  1.  Topsin-M is a benzimidazole fungicide very similar to Benlate. It is recommended only for protecting pruning wounds from canker diseases.
  1.  Rating based on low mancozeb dosage supplied by labeled rate of *NYGavel.
  1.  At the labeled rate of 16-20 fl oz/A, Inspire Super contains the same amount of cyprodinil (the mixture component with meaningful Botrytis activity) as 5.6-7 oz/A of Vangard. Note that the ++++ Botrytis rating for Vangard in this chart assumes a 10 oz/A rate. If using Inspire Super and desiring maximum Botrytis activity, supplement with Vangard (3.0-4.4 oz/A, depending on Inspire Super rate used) to provide a cyprodinil dose equivalent of 10 oz/A of Vangard.
  1.  Although not a strobilurin, fenamidone (*NYReason) has a similar mode of action, so fungal individuals resistant to the strobilurins are also resistant to *NYReason and vice versa. Downy mildew resistance to these Group 11 materials is common in the mid-Atlantic and southern regions of the U.S., and is becoming increasingly common in NY. It is risky to rely on Group 11 fungicides for control of downy mildew.
  1.  Efficacy depends to some extent on disease pressure. Better efficacy observed when disease pressure is lower.

 * Federal restricted-use pesticide.

 *NY Restricted-use pesticide in New York State

 † Not for use in Nassau/Suffolk Counties in New York

34126

Table 3.2.3 Relative doses of individual active ingredients provided by "combination products" when applied at label rates

Product

Label rate (per acre)

Active ingredient, amount provided (oz/A)

 Azoxystr-obin

 Benzovi-ndiflupyr

 copper hydrox-ide

 cyprodi-nil

 difeno-conazole

 flutriafol

 manco-zeb

 mandi-propa-mid

 tebucon-azole

 Abound 2.08SC, Azaka 2.08SC

 10.0-15.5 fl oz

 2.56-4.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 *NYAprovia 0.83EC

 8.6-10.5 fl oz

 

 0.9-1.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 *NYAprovia Top 1.6EC

 8.5-13.5 fl oz

 

 0.7-1.10

 

 

 1.03-1.64

 

 

 

 

 Dithane M45 80WP*

 1.5-4.0 lb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 19.2-51.2

 

 

 Gavel 75DF**

 2.0-2.5 lb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 21.3-26.7

 

 

 Inspire Super

 16-20 fl oz

 

 

 

 4.18-5.23

 1.46-1.83

 

 

 

 

 Kocide 2000*

 1.5-3.0 lb

 

 

 12.9-25.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 *NYLuna Experience 3.3SC**

 6.0-8.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1.25-1.80

 Quadris Top 2.7SC

 12-14 fl oz

 2.51-2.92

 

 

 

 1.58-1.83

 

 

 

 

 Revus Top 4SC

 7 fl oz

 

 

 

 

 1.82

 

 

 1.82

 

 Revus 2.08SC

 8 fl oz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 2.08

 

 †Rhyme 2.08SC

 4-5 fl oz

 

 

 

 

 

 1.04-1.30

 

 

 

 Ridomil Gold Copper**

 2.5 lb

 

 

 24.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Ridomil Gold MZ**

 2.5 lb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 25.6

 

 

 †Switch62.5WG**

 11-14 oz

 

 

 

 4.13-5.25

 

 

 

 

 

 †Topguard EQ

 5.0-8.0 fl oz

 1.54-2.46

 

 

 

 

 1.14-1.82

 

 

 

 Tebuconazole 45DF (generics)

 4.0 oz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1.80

 Vangard 75WF

 10 oz

 

 

 

 7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 *Provided as a specific example for comparative purposes; additional registered products not listed contain this same active ingredient.

 **Only the active ingredient in common with one or more other registered products is listed.

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