Crop and Pest Management Guidelines

A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication
34160

6.4 Preemergence Herbicides

34402

ALION

*NY†ALION (indaziflam) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in established vineyards.

Rate: Do not apply more than 5.0 fl. oz. per acre surface sprayed. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.

Timing: Applications may be applied at any time when the ground is not frozen or covered with snow. Moisture is needed for activation of *NY†Alion. The most effective control occurs when adequate moisture is present and the application is followed by rain or an irrigation event within 21 days and prior to weed seed germination. Weed seeds must come into contact with * NY†Alion prior to emergence to be controlled. *NY†Alion will not provide control of emerged or established weeds. When weeds are emerged at application the addition of a postemergence herbicide is needed.

Comments: Do not use on grapes grown on sand or on soils with 20% or more gravel content. Avoid spray contact with foliage, green bark, roots or fruit to avoid injury. Contact with tissues other than mature brown bark may result in serious damage or plant death.

Use only in vineyards established at least 3 or 5 years. (See label for specific timing.) Ensure that the grapes have been planted at least 12 inches deep or that there is 12 inches of soil berm between soil surface and the major portion of the root system or injury may occur. The soil surface should not have open channels or cracks.

Grape vineyards may be established in a location previously treated with * NY †Alion 2 years after application.

A FIFRA Section 2(ee) recommendation allowing a tank mix of a reduced rate of Matrix, Matrix FNV, Matrix SG, Pruvin, Solida, or other rimsulfuron herbicide with *NY†Alion Herbicide can be used as a preemergence application to improve the overall weed control in Pennsylvania. The 2(ee) product bulletin should be in the possession of the user at the time of application. This FIFRA 2(ee) recommendation is not available in NY.

34403

CASORON CS

CASORON CS (dichlobenil) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 303-6952

Selected uses: Preemergence and early postemergence control of most annual and perennial grasses and broadleaf weeds.

Rate: 1.4 to 2.8 gal per acre surface sprayed.

Timing: Late fall through early spring. Avoid applications above 70ºF or to dry soil as herbicide losses may occur due to volatility.

Comments: Casoron CS is a newer formulation of dichlobenil herbicide. The herbicide needs to be moved into the upper layer of soil by precipitation or soil moisture in order to be effective. While many annual and newly established perennial weeds may be controlled, do not expect control of established perennial weeds, or season-long control of summer annual weeds. Note the maximum labeled rate of Casoron CS is 50% less active ingredient than the maximum labeled rate of Casoron 4G (see discussion in the "Specialty Use Herbicide" section.

34404

CHATEAU SW

CHATEAU SW (flumioxazin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds and annual grasses

Rate: 6-12 oz. per acre surface sprayed. Two applications per season are allowed up to a maximum of 24 oz, but do not make a sequential application within 30 days of the first application, nor within 60 days of harvest. A maximum rate of 6 oz. per application should be used on any soil that has a sand content over 80% if vines are less than 3 years of age. Refer to the "Herbicides for nonbearing vineyards" section for additional comments for use on young vines.

Timing: Applications are allowed at any time except within 30 days of a previous application or within 60 days of harvest. Do not apply after grape bloom unless using hooded or shielded application equipment and the applicator can ensure spray drift will not contact fruit or foliage with the exception of undesirable suckers.

Comments: Chateau provides preemergence control of most annual broadleaf weeds and grasses. Chateau also provides some postemergence activity on many weeds and grapevine suckers, however, it should be tank mixed with a labeled postemergence herbicide for control of emerged weeds. Observe any restrictions associated with the postemergence herbicide (glyphosate, paraquat, †Rely or Aim). Quicker burn down activity may be observed from tank mixes with the preemergence herbicide than with the postemergence herbicide alone. In some situations, a single application of 12 oz. Chateau provides season-long control of annual weeds in vineyards. In other situations including heavy soil type, heavy weed pressure, or high precipitation, a split application may be necessary to achieve season-long weed control. In our experience, two applications of 6 oz. Chateau plus a postemergence herbicide, applied in early May and around grape bloom, have provided excellent season-long weed control. The label states to avoid direct or indirect spray contact to foliage and green bark, with the exception of undesirable suckers. Applications made after bud break through harvest require shielded application to ensure spray drift will not come into contact with crop fruit or foliage. There is a use precaution that shielded applications made after bud break through harvest should not be made with glyphosate or products containing glyphosate, meaning the manufacturer is not liable if you use Chateau in this manner.

34405

GOAL 2XL, GOALTENDER

GOAL 2XL, GOALTENDER (oxyfluorfen) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING (Goal 2XL), CAUTION (GOALTENDER)

Medical emergency: (800) 992-5994

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds and early season control of annual grasses in established vineyards.

Rate: Apply 5-8 pt Goal 2XL, or 2.5-4 pt GoalTender, per acre surface sprayed.

Timing: Must be applied before bud swell, as later applications may result in significant vine injury. Do not apply to vines established less than 3 years unless vines are on a trellis at least 3 feet above the soil surface.

Comments: GoalTender is a newer, water-based formulation of oxyfluorfen, and contains 4 lb active ingredient per gallon, while the EC formulation contains 2 lb active ingredient per gallon. Oxyfluorfen primarily controls annual broadleaf weeds and is quite effective in controlling pigweed species. Some control of annual grasses may be achieved, but season-long control of grasses is not expected. For season-long control of annual grasses, use a tank mix with †Solicam, Prowl H2O, oryzalin, or diuron.

34406

KARMEX DF, *NYKARMEX XP, DIREX DF, DIREX 4L

KARMEX DF, *NYKARMEX XP, DIREX DF, DIREX 4L, others (diuron) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (888) 324-7598; (800) 441-3637; (877) 250-9291

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds and annual grasses in established vineyards.

Rate: The allowable use rate for diuron products depends on which manufacturer's product is being used. Some product labels allow a single application of 2-6 lb of 80 DF or 1.6-4.8 qt of 4L per acre surface sprayed, while others allow two applications of 2-5 lb of 80 DF or 1.6-4 qt of 4L per acre surface sprayed. All the labels urge caution for use on soils low in clay or organic matter (1-2%) and, under those conditions, limits the rate to 2-3 lb 80 DF or 1.6-2.4 qt 4L. Depending on the product label, use 3-5 lb or 3-6 lb 80 DF, or 2.4-4qt or 2.4-4.8 qt 4L, on soils high in clay or organic matter.

Timing: Apply in the spring just prior to germination and growth of annual weeds. Older product labels allow a single application per year as a directed spray avoiding contact of foliage or fruit with spray or drift. Newer product labels allow two annual applications at least 90 days apart, while avoiding direct or indirect spray contact to foliage and green bark, with the exception of undesirable suckers. Use only in vineyards established at least 3 years.

Comments: Diuron controls a broad spectrum of annual weeds but may not provide season-long control of some annual grasses, such as foxtail species. Tank mixing with a longer residual grass herbicide such as †Solicam, Prowl H2O, or oryzalin may be necessary to obtain season-long control of annual grasses. Observations suggest that repeated use of diuron over many years results in shorter residual weed control, probably due to enhanced microbial decomposition. Use of other herbicides in a rotational program is advised.

NOTE: Some formulations of diuron are a restricted use product in New York State.

34407

MATRIX FNV

MATRIX FNV (rimsulfuron) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 441-3637

Selected uses: Short-term residual control of many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds

Rate: For broadcast applications, make a single application of Matrix FNV at 4 ounces per acre per year. For banded applications (50% band or less), two applications at 4 ounces per acre at least 30 days apart are permitted.

Timing: Fall or spring applications are permitted. If weeds are present at time of application, include a labeled postemergence herbicide. Avoid direct or indirect contact with crop foliage or fruit, except undesirable suckers.

Comments: The label states susceptible weeds are controlled for 60 to 90 days after application of Matrix FNV. Do not expect season-long weed control with a single application of Matrix FNV. For season-long weed control make two applications at least 30 days apart, or tank mix with a suitable herbicide.

34408

PRINCEP Caliber 90, PRINCEP 4L

*NYPRINCEP Caliber 90, *NYPRINCEP 4L, others (simazine) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds and early season control of annual grasses in established vineyards.

Rate: Apply 2.2-4.4 lb of 90 WDG, or 2-4 qt of 4L per acre surface sprayed. Use the lower rate on coarse-textured soils low in organic matter. Note the maximum labeled use rate has recently been reduced.

Timing: Apply between harvest and early spring. Do not use in vineyards established less than 3 years.

Comments: Princep controls a broad spectrum of annual broadleaf weeds, but season-long control of annual grasses is not usually achieved. At low soil pH, hydrolysis enhances degradation and residual activity is shortened. For season-long control of annual grasses, use a tank mix with †Solicam, Prowl H2O, oryzalin, or diuron.

34409

PROWL H2O

PROWL H2O (pendimethalin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and non-bearing vineyards; must be applied when vines are dormant. Note that other formulations of pendimethalin have been registered for use in non-bearing vineyards for several years, but use in bearing vineyards is restricted to the "Prowl H2O" formulation.

Rate: Apply 3.2 to 6.3 quarts per acre surface sprayed.

Timing: Any time after fall harvest, during winter dormancy, or in the spring. Do not apply over the top of grape vines with leaves, buds, or fruit. Contact with leaves, shoots, or buds may cause injury.

Comments: The active ingredient in Prowl H2O (pendimethalin) is chemically similar to oryzalin (both are dinitroanalines) and the spectrum of weeds they control is similar. Pendimethalin is weak in controlling some broadleaf weeds including ragweed and mustard species. Tank mix with Solicam, Chateau, simazine, diuron, or oxyfluorfen for broad-spectrum weed control.

Note: Prowl H2O is also registered for use during vineyard establishment. That use is discussed in the section "Herbicides for nonbearing vineyards."

34410

SOLICAM DF

†SOLICAM DF (norflurazon) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (833) 374-1975

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses, suppression of perennial grasses, and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in established vineyards.

Rate: Apply 1.25-5 lb per acre surface sprayed. Consult the label to determine the proper use rate, which is based on soil texture.

Timing: Apply in fall or early spring prior to weed germination. Several inches of rainfall are needed to move the herbicide into the soil. Vines must be established at least 2 years.

Comments: †Solicam provides excellent season-long control of annual grasses and several annual broadleaf species including velvetleaf, and will provide some suppression of yellow nutsedge, plantains, and perennial grasses. †Solicam is relatively weak in controlling common annual broadleaf weeds such as pigweed and smartweed species and common lambsquarters. Tank mixes with another preemergence herbicide such as Prowl H2O, simazine, diuron, oxyfluorfen, or oryzalin are needed to attain season-long, broad-spectrum weed control. Note that †Solicam is not registered for use in Nassau and Suffolk counties in New York.

34411

SURFLAN A.S., ORYZALIN 4 A.S.

SURFLAN A.S., ORYZALIN 4 A.S. (oryzalin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (866) 673-6671, (877) 250-9291

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards.

Rate: Apply 2-6 qt per acre surface sprayed. Length of control depends on the rate applied. The total amount allowed per year is 12 qt per acre surface sprayed with a minimum of 2.5 months between applications.

Timing: Apply in the fall or spring prior to weed germination. Do not apply to newly planted vines until soil has settled.

Comments: Oryzalin may be applied safely to coarse-textured, low organic matter soils where other residual herbicide options are limited. It is not recommended for use on soils with an organic matter content of greater than 5 percent. Weed residues on the soil surface can also reduce its effectiveness. Oryzalin is very weak in controlling some broadleaf weeds including ragweed and mustard species. Tank mix with †Solicam, diuron, simazine, or oxyfluorfen for broad-spectrum season-long weed control. Note: the product "Surflan A.S. Specialty Herbicide" is only registered for use in non-bearing vineyards.

Note: Oryzalin is also registered for use during vineyard establishment. That use is discussed in the section "Herbicides for nonbearing vineyards."

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