Crop and Pest Management Guidelines

A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication
34162

6.6 Herbicides for Nonbearing Vineyards

34418

AIM

AIM (carfentrazone-ethyl) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 331-3148

Selected uses: Postemergence control of certain susceptible broadleaf weeds.

Rate and timing: Refer to information under "Postemergence herbicides."

Comments: Avoid any contact with foliage and green bark on young vines.

34419

CHATEAU SW

CHATEAU SW (flumioxazin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds and annual grasses

Rate: 6-12 oz. per acre surface sprayed. A maximum rate of 6 oz. per application should be used on any soil that has a sand content over 80% if vines are less than 3 years of age. Two applications per season are allowed, but do not make a sequential application within 30 days of the first application.

Timing: Applications are allowed at any time except within 30 days of a previous application.

Comments: The Chateau label states "do not apply to grapes established less than two years unless they are trellised at least 3 feet from the soil surface or are protected from spray contact by non-porous wraps, grow tubes or waxed containers." Research conducted on gravelly soil at the Vineyard Lab in Fredonia has shown substantial vine stunting from Chateau applications on newly-planted, own-rooted 'Concord' vines, even when protected with non-porous grow tubes. Observe label restrictions regarding rates, soil types, and use of protective grow tubes when using Chateau on non-bearing vines. New plantings of own-rooted varieties such as Concord should be planted so that all roots are a minimum of 8 inches below the soil surface to be treated. This may require hilling around newly planted vines so that the settled depth of the hill will be 4 to 5 inches above the vineyard floor.

34420

DEVRINOL 50-DF

DEVRINOL 50-DF (napropamide) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 858-7378

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards.

Rate: Apply 8 lb per acre surface sprayed.

Timing: Apply in fall or early spring before weeds emerge. Do not apply to frozen ground. Best results are achieved when incorporation into the soil by rainfall occurs soon after application.

Comments: Devrinol degrades upon exposure to sunlight (called "photodegradation"). The label states that incorporation by rainfall should occur within 24 hours of application. Although Devrinol is not chemically related to the dinitroanaline herbicides (oryzalin and pendimethalin), it controls a similar spectrum of weeds. Ragweed is a particularly common escape weed in new plantings, and weed competition can hamper vine establishment. In states other than New York, tank mixing with ^Gallery should provide more broad-spectrum weed control. Another option in new vineyards is to cultivate around the vines once or twice to control ragweed, and then apply Devrinol as a directed spray to freshly cultivated ground. The Devrinol label says to "avoid contact with fruit or foliage," although local experience indicates little or no injury occurs from foliar contact. Note that late spring or summer applications of Devrinol are most sensitive to photodegradation, so applications should be made when sufficient precipitation for incorporation into the soil is expected soon after application.

34421

FUSILADE DX

FUSILADE DX (fluazifop-P-butyl) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Selected uses: Selective postemergence control of young annual grasses and suppression or control of perennial grasses in nonbearing vineyards only.

Rate: Apply 16-24 oz per acre surface sprayed. Add crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates.

Timing: Apply to actively growing grasses before they exceed the recommended growth stages indicated on the label. (Examples: when annual grasses are 2-8 inches tall and prior to heading; when quackgrass is 6-10 inches tall.) Repeat treatments may be necessary for full season control.

Comments: Spray to obtain thorough coverage of grass foliage, but not to runoff. Avoid contact of spray with grapevine foliage.

34422

GALLERY 75 DF

^GALLERY 75 DF (isoxaben) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 992-5994

Selected uses: Preemergence control of broadleaf weeds in nonbearing vineyards only. ^GALLERY IS NOT REGISTERED FOR USE IN NEW YORK STATE.

Rate: Apply 0.66-1.33 lb per acre surface sprayed.

Timing: Apply prior to weed germination or immediately after cultivation in nonbearing vineyards only. Do not apply until soil has settled and no cracks are present, or plant injury may occur. Do not apply within one year of harvesting fruit.

Comments: ^Gallery primarily controls broadleaf weeds. Tank mix with an effective grass herbicide such as oryzalin, Devrinol, or pendimethalin for broad-spectrum weed control during vineyard establishment.

34423

GRAMOXONE MAX, GRAMOXONE SL 2.0

^*GRAMOXONE MAX, *GRAMOXONE SL 2.0 (paraquat) - RESTRICTED-USE PESTICIDE - read the label

Signal word: DANGER

Medical emergency: (800) 888-8372

Selected uses: Postemergence burndown of all weeds in new or established vineyards and burndown of grapevine suckers up to 8 inches long.

Rate and timing: Refer to the discussion under "Postemergence herbicides."

Comments: *Paraquat is a contact herbicide that desiccates all green plant tissue. Avoid contact of spray or mist with young vines - apply as a directed spray, use shielded equipment, or protect young vines using non-permeable grow tubes.

34424

MATRIX

MATRIX (rimsulfuron) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 441-3637

Selected uses: Vines must be established for one full growing season. Refer to Section 6.4 for additional information.

34425

POAST

POAST (sethoxydim) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 832-4357

Selected uses: Postemergence control of young annual grasses and suppression or control of perennial grasses in bearing vineyards and nonbearing vineyards, but not within 50 days of harvest.

Rate and timing: Refer to the discussion under "Postemergence herbicides."

Comments: Spray to obtain thorough coverage of grass foliage, but not to runoff.

34426

PROWL H2O, PROWL 3.3 EC, ^PENDIMAX 3.3 EC

PROWL H2O, PROWL 3.3 EC, ^PENDIMAX 3.3 EC (pendimethalin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 832-HELP, (800) 992-5994

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in nonbearing (first or second year) vineyards only (EC formulations only); must be applied when vines are dormant.

Rate: Apply 3.2-6.3 qt. per acre surface sprayed of Prowl H2O, or 2.4-4.8 qt per acre surface sprayed of 3.3 EC formulations. The labels suggest the higher rates for longer-term weed control. Note that the application rate range for Prowl H2O contains 50% more of the active ingredient, pendimethalin, than the EC formulations.

Timing: Apply only to dormant grapevines (newly transplanted and one-year-old non-bearing vines). Do not apply during or after bud swell as contact with leaves, shoots, or buds may cause injury. Do not apply to newly planted vines until the ground has settled and no cracks are present.

Comments: Pendimethalin is chemically similar to oryzalin (both are dinitroanalines) and the spectrum of weeds they control is similar. Ragweed is a particularly common escape weed in new plantings, and weed competition can reduce vine growth during establishment. In states other than New York, tank mixing with ^Gallery should provide more broad-spectrum weed control. Only dormant applications are permitted. If a combination of early-season cultivation followed by herbicide application during the growing season is intended during vineyard establishment, better choices include oryzalin or Devrinol. Prowl H2O is a newer water-based formulation of pendimethalin with less odor than the older products. Applications of Prowl H2O to grapevine foliage are less injurious than applications of 3.3 EC formulations, but label restrictions (i.e. dormant applications only) still apply.

34427

RELY

†RELY (glufosinate-ammonium) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Selected uses: Postemergence burndown of all weeds in new or established vineyards and burndown of grapevine suckers up to 12 inches long. †RELY IS NOT REGISTERED FOR USE IN NASSAU AND SUFFOLK COUNTIES IN NEW YORK.

Rate and timing: See discussion under "Post-emergence herbicides."

Comments: Avoid contact with foliage and green bark on young vines as injury may occur. Apply as a directed spray, use shielded equipment, or protect young vines using non-permeable grow tubes.

34428

RELY 280

†RELY 280 (glufosinate-ammonium) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 334-7577

Selected uses: Postemergence burndown of all weeds in new or established vineyards and burndown of grapevine suckers up to 12 inches long. †RELY 280 IS NOT REGISTERED FOR USE IN NASSAU AND SUFFOLK COUNTIES IN NEW YORK.

Rate and timing: See discussion under "Postemergence Herbicides."

Comments: Avoid contact with green, uncallused bark on young vines as serious injury may occur. Do not apply to vines established less than one year unless protected from spray contact by non-porous wraps, grow tubes, or waxed containers.

34429

SELECT 2 EC, ^VOLUNTEER

NYSELECT 2 EC, ^VOLUNTEER (clethodim) - read the label

Signal word: WARNING

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Selected uses: Postemergence control of young annual grasses and suppression or control of perennial grasses in nonbearing vineyards only. Note the restriction for use on Long Island, NY.

Rate: Apply 6-8 fl. oz. per acre surface sprayed, depending on the grass species present. Add a non-ionic surfactant containing at least 80% active ingredient at the rate of 1 pt. per 50 gals.

Comments: Application on Long Island, New York, is restricted to no more than 16 fl. oz. per acre per season. For all other areas, do not apply more than 32 fl. oz. per season. Do not apply more than 8 fl. oz. per application. Note that higher rates can be applied on certain other crops under heavy grass pressure or at maximum weed heights but the higher rates are not labeled for use in grape.

34430

SELECT MAX

*NYSELECT MAX (clethodim) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 892-0099

Selected uses: Postemergence control of young annual grasses and suppression or control of perennial grasses in nonbearing vineyards only. Note the restriction for use on Long Island, NY.

Rate: Apply 9-16 fl. oz. on annual grasses or 12-16 oz. on perennial grasses, per acre surface sprayed. Add a non-ionic surfactant containing at least 80% active ingredient at the rate of 1 pt. per 50 gals.

Comments: This is a less concentrated formulation of clethodim than *NYSelect 2EC or ^Volunteer, with a signal word of "caution" rather than "warning". Application on Long Island, New York, is limited to no more than 32 fl. oz. per season. For all other areas, do not apply more than 64 fl. oz. per season. Repeated applications may be made on a minimum of 14 day interval.

34431

SURFLAN A.S., ORYZALIN 4 A.S., SURFLAN A.S SPECIALTY HERBICIDE

SURFLAN A.S., ORYZALIN 4 A.S., SURFLAN A.S SPECIALTY HERBICIDE (oryzalin) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (800) 992-5994, (800) 424-9300, (800) 858-7378

Selected uses: Preemergence control of annual grasses and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards.

Rate: Apply 2-6 qt per acre surface sprayed. Length of control depends on the rate applied.

Timing: Apply in the fall or spring prior to weed germination. Do not apply to newly planted vines until soil has settled.

Comments: Oryzalin may be applied safely to coarse-textured, low organic matter soils where other residual herbicide options are limited. It is not recommended for use on soils with an organic matter content greater than 5 percent, and weed residues on the soil surface can reduce its effectiveness. Oryzalin is very weak in controlling some broadleaf weeds including ragweed and mustard species. Ragweed is a particularly common escape weed in new plantings, and weed competition can hamper vine establishment. In states other than New York, tank mixing with ^Gallery should provide more broad-spectrum weed control. Another option in new vineyards is to cultivate around the vines once or twice to control ragweed and other weed seedlings, and then apply oryzalin as a directed spray to recently cultivated soil. The oryzalin labels do not prohibit contact with new growth on vines and experience indicates this is a safe use of the product.

34432

ROUNDUP, TOUCHDOWN

ROUNDUP (various formulations), TOUCHDOWN (various formulations), others (glyphosate) - read the label

Signal word: CAUTION

Medical emergency: (314) 694-4000, (800) 888-8372

Selected uses: Postemergence systemic control of annual and perennial weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards where contact with grapevine foliage can be avoided.

Rates and timing: See discussion under "Post-emergence herbicides."

Comments: Perennial weeds should be eliminated during site preparation prior to vineyard establishment. Applications of glyphosate to nonbearing vines should be made only when contact with green grapevine tissue can be avoided - when vines are dormant, when shielded equipment is used, or when vines are protected with non-permeable grow tubes.

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